In India, welfare measures like empowerment of women, reservation in Parliament, free education to girl child and a lot of other woman progressive initiative, do not make sense when we look at cases of female foeticide. There are only 933 females for every 1000 males against global figure of 1060 females per 1000 males. Sex ratio is a composite indicator of woman's status in a society. If we analyse state wise sex ratio, it is most disturbing to note that the States like Punjab and Haryana which are among the prosperous states of India, female-male ratio is continuously declining. Female Foeticide, is violation of right a basic human right and guarantee under the constitution In the case of female foeticide, the female children in the wombs of expecting mothers, they are not only denied the right to live but are robbed to their right to be born.
The selection of male child over female is enough proof for lack of right to birth to girl child. Social, cultural, financial and psychological reasons are responsible for the prevalence of evil female foeticide in our society. Unfortunately, it became popular for sex determination, leading to sex selective abortions for those who do not want to be burdened with female child. The more easy way was shown by Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 by legal ising abortions in certain specific conditions and ultimately became a tool for female sex-selective abortions and led to drastic fall in the female sex ratio to present level. Male child preference is a pivotal factor in female foeticide. The normative preference for the male child emanates from gender typed roles, male inheritance and decadency.
In our society people think that male child brings social status for them. All religions have legitimized gender inequalities and accorded an inferior status to women. Manu, the Hindu Law Giver, denied autonomy to women, and advised that women should be guarded day and night. Science has made this a less messy procedure through female foeticide. Dowry system is also crucial in preventing the birth of a girl child. [for sex determination test and abortion], than to give birth to female child and spend five lacs for her marriage.
Girl child is treated as a bird of passage, a guest in her own parent's house. Small family norm is also responsible for female foeticide. Middle class families prefer norm of two-child family. Decrease in family size ensured the survival of male child at the cost of female child. This norm has displaced the girl child.
The practice of sex determination followed by abortion in case of female child is not only illegal but constitutes a criminal offence. It was proposed to prohibit pre-natal diagnostic techniques for determination of sex of foetus for the purpose of female foeticide. Such abuse of scientific technique was found discriminatory against female sex and also affecting the dignity and status of women. Law alone cannot stop the social evil of female foeticide. The present study reveals that girl child is proving an enormously endangered species. The gravity of problem demands immediate measures to combat female foeticide..