First off every manager should know that being a manager does not automatically make you a leader. "Managers are people who do things right, and leaders are people who do the right thing." (Handy 1993) The position of a leader can be developed in four main theories. The first being the traits that an individual has this theory is based on the belief that people are born with essentially a leadership gene having personality traits that make them more of a natural leader then others. This is the most straight forward theory because it looks solely at the leader and not there followers.
According to a survey of 75 top executives, carried out by an American journal, Fortune there are 15 leadership qualities: judgment, initiative, integrity, foresight, energy, drive, human relations skill, decisiveness, dependability, emotional stability, fairness, ambition, dedication, objectivity and cooperation. (Adair 1988) All these traits will not generally be found in one person but if you follow this theory and you contain a fair few of the above traits then it is likely you are or would be a successful leader. The second Theory of leadership development is the style theory this concentrates on what leaders do and how they act in essence there behaviour towards anyone who works under them. Leadership is built from two broad types of behaviour.
Task behaviour which is helping group members achieve there objectives and Relationship behaviour, which is helping the group feel comfortable with themselves, each other and the situation they " re in. The purpose of the style theory is to show how leaders combine the for-mentioned behaviours to achieve there goals. Concern for the task Concern for people Directive Leadership Participative Leadership (Blake's Managerial Grid) (Blake's and Mouton 1978) Blake's managerial grid is used to show what leadership style a leader has adopted by his Task and Relationship behaviour. There are 5 types of leadership style according to Blake and Mouton. The first is impoverished leadership this is adopted by leaders who aren't concerned with Task or Relationship behaviour. This leader will be uninvolved and withdrawn from the group he / she is leading.
The second leadership style is middle of the road leadership this is where the leader gives moderate concern to the task at hand and the requirements of the group. Middle of the road leaders often avoids conflict but push for moderate levels of production. The third style is called Authority leadership and is assumed by leaders who place a heavy emphasis on the task but pays little or no interest to the needs of the group. This type of leadership is completely goal driven. The forth style that's stated in Blake's managerial grid is referred to as the country club leadership style. This is the opposite of the Authority leadership style with all emphasis placed on the needs and problems of the group.
A leader that takes up this style is often agreeable, eager and comforting to the members of the group. The last style known as the Team leadership style places importance on both the Task and Relationship of the group. The third theory regarding leadership development is the Contingency theory. This theory runs along the lines of matching up leaders to situations they would be best suited for.
In this theory individuals should know there own leadership style and when the situation arises they should be able to step in and sort the problem. For example if a strong leader and a crisis situation collide then that leader should step in for the duration of the crisis and then retract when the crisis is over. Other factors that effect the situation of a leadership role are the relationship between the leader and any of the group. The leader has to be liked and respect for the group to work.