Perceptions, Attitudes and Health Concerns on Rape Recent studies have examined social and psychological characteristics of victims of various types of rape. In addition, there are also health care issues such as injury from rape, chronic pain, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder that occur. Rape and sexual violence result in anywhere from three to thirteen percent of pregnancies in various studies around the world. In this review we will discuss the use of medical care, some international interventions used to prevent mass rape and re victimization, and perceptions and attitudes about rape across gender and groups of people. One study by Auster and Leone, 2001, examines college students' perspectives on marital rape and the impact on gender and membership in a sorority or fraternity. In particular this study focused on three aspects: (1) views regarding marital rape compared to rape by a stranger, (2) feelings about possible actions a woman who is a victim of marital rape can take, and (3) attitudes towards legislation pertaining to marital rape.

Results showed that college women were statistically significantly more likely than college men to say that they strongly agree that marital rape and stranger rape should be treated as similar crimes. In addition, it was found that non fraternity men were statistically significantly more likely than fraternity men to indicate that they strongly approve of marital rape legislation and that husbands who perpetrate marital rape should be prosecuted. Conversely, sorority membership had little impact on women's responses. Another study by Campbell, et al, 2002, discusses health consequences of intimate partner violence including rape. This violence is a common health-care issue. In this article the researcher reviews research on both the mental and physical health effects.

Psychological coercion and degradation almost always accompany such violence. If abuse is identified in women they can receive interventions that increase their safety and improve their health. Results show that rape and intimate violence is a statistically significantly large health concern for the United States. Lehr-Lehnardt, 2002, examines wartime rape as a consequence of war. For centuries wartime rape has been necessary to boost soldiers' morale and it was also lumped together with property crimes. Later rape was considered a crime against family honor.

Within the last half century rape has finally been understood to be an offense against the woman, against her dignity instead of against her family's honor. This study discusses whether the International Criminal Court (ICC) can be a necessary step towards protecting women worldwide. Further, this study examines whether the ICC has made a significant leap towards protecting women throughout the world. In conclusion, the researcher sums up that "where there is war there is always sexual assault." Results show that the ICC has found no statistically significant results.

A study by Yeater and O'Donohue, 2002, evaluates previously victimized and non victimized women's responses to a sexual assault prevention program using a training-to-criterion approach. Responses that were measured included (1) whether participants already knew the information provided, (2) whether sexually revictimized experimental participants took longer to be trained to criterion than did nonrevictimized experimental participants, and (3) whether sexually revictimized control participants knew less information than did nonrevictimized control participants. Results indicate that sexually revictimized participants did not take longer to be trained to criterion on the program segments and did not know less material on Trial 1 of the prevention program than nonrevictimized participants did. Actually, participants who reported one victimization situation took statistically significantly longer to be trained to criterion than did revictimized participants on a measure that assessed identification of risky dating behaviors. Higginson, 1999, examines the excuses and justifications made by teenage mothers to account for their daughter's involvement with older boyfriends.

The researcher gathered data during a three-year participant-observation study of mothers enrolled in a high school program for adolescent parents. The teenagers who made justifications argued that their consent made their relationships non-deviant, and felt that they should not be defined as statutory rape offenses. The teens that used excuses perceived themselves as victims of their older boyfriends, and believed that statutory rape laws should be enforced with more regularity. As these relationships ended, the women who initially made justifications often shifted to excuses, directing the blame away from themselves and towards their boyfriends. Discussion Findings in these studies support the fact that rape creates many problems across the world. These studies have examined perceptions about marital rape and attitudes concerning legislation laws.

Gender and fraternity membership has also shown differences among the variables. These studies also examine health concerns and problems and found that rape is a serious health-care issue in the United States. These articles relate in how they research and take a closer examination of rape victims or how others perceive types of rape. Similarities come into place when each study reports the results of the experiments. Some use a sexual assault prevention program, whereas others make an assessment of attitudes and behaviors using a sample of college students.

In conclusion, these studies all show that any type of rape is a serious issue in all parts of the world. In some areas it is more of a health concern, but in others it can be a women's rights issue as well. Throughout the last half century, more studies have shown that rape is a crime of power and control instead of a crime of violence and sex. References Auster, C.

& Leone, J. (2001). Late adolescents' perspectives on marital rape: the impact of gender and fraternity / sorority membership. Adolescence, 36, 141-153. Campbell, J (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence.

Violence Against Women II, 359, 93-105. Higginson, J. G. (1999). Defining, excusing, and justifying deviance: teen mothers' accounts for statutory rape. Symbolic Interaction, 22, 25-44.

Lehr-Lehnardt, R. (2002). One small step for women: female-friendly provisions in the Rome statute of the International Criminal Court. Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Global Report on Women's Human Rights, 13, 317-357. Yeater, E. & O'Donohue, W.

(2002). Sexual revicitmization: The relationship among knowledge, risk perception and ability to respond to high-risk situations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 1135-1144.