Robert Puckett Christian Peterson Anthropology 101 3 December 2002 Indigenous Resources Forum The second panel was on governance. Four speakers were scheduled to appear. However, only three attended. Lionel Boyer spoke about the Treaty of Fort Bridger. Larry Bagley did not attend. Claude Broncho talked about Fish and Wildlife.

Paul Schmidt lein discussed Civil Rights. The Treaty of Fort Bridger was signed on July 3 rd 1868 in Fort Bridger, UT. The land had already been staked out however, the Indians did not inhabit the land. The Treaty was revised in 1869 and the Indians were forced onto the land. Some Indians were forced to march from as far away as the Oregon border.

Some Indians not wanting to give up their native lands were forced to flee and hide to avoid extermination. The Indians were forced from their lands because they were rich in precious minerals. The Shoshone/Bannock Tribes have made agreements with the federal government in order to secure Fish and Wildlife rights within their reservation. They are co-managers with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). At the time the agreements were made the area covered was 1. 8 million acres.

The area covered today is only five hundred thousand acres. The Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Program involves the Shoshone/Bannock Tribes, The Idaho Department of Fish and Wildlife, Shoshone/Piste Tribes, the BLM and others to focus efforts on the Upper and Middle Snake River Providence. Their efforts are to protect and enhance the natural habitats in this area. From the late 1860's, in the United States west of the Mississippi, there were bounties on Native Americans $100 for an adult male, $50 for an adult female, and $25 for a child. The bounty on a wolf was $100.

In 1950-1970 the civil rights movement brought on by black youths started in the United States. Five out of the 17 states that make up the Northern states did not adopt any form of civil rights: Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota. The attempted extermination was so great that anthropologists thought the Indians would become extinct. The only way to start the healing process is to confront the past. Although I cannot say that this forum has changed the way I believe I can say that it reinforced my beliefs, I feel the Indians have been given great injustice.

They have been forced from their homelands, marched hundreds of miles, and even been killed for money. They are stereotyped as drinking, thieving, lying and good for nothing because of the color of their skin. This has all been done by a society that most obviously values money more than human life.