Coral Reefs are a world of their own. They have biodiversity and relationships which most cant see without studying them. There are three parts to a coral reef. They are the reef, sand flats, and grass beds. All three parts are very different. Each part has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The have different predators who have defense mechanism adapted to the type of are they are living in. Such as in an area like sand flats; some fish can burrow under the sand to hide from predators. These cities of coral show marine life. The marine life in each part is based on the abiotic factors. Those factors are climate and area.
For example, fish in sand flats are able to dig holes because the abiotic factor sand. The reef is the first part of coral reef. Some of the predators that live on a reef are the barracuda, the more eel, and the yellow tail snapper. The butterfly fish is a very interesting predator because it has a false eye on its back. These predators do not have it made easy for them to catch their prey. Their intelligent prey which seems to be small helpless fish have very good defense mechanisms.
Dwarf herring are very small fish. They swim in large schools of fish to give their predator the impression that they are larger then they really are. Spiny fle my can live in small holes, which their predator probably wouldn't notice. Also, another defense mechanism by the Mantis Shrimp is that they are able to dig and hide in holes while being searched for by their predator. Sand flats are areas of the coral reef where the ground is all made up of sand.
Many predators live in this area. The porcupine fish is a predator with very hard jaws. It also has the advantage of having a defense mechanism that it can inflate and spikes will come out of its body. The Flounder has good camouflage so its prey can't see it. The Goatfish is another predator who is able to dig underground. Many of the prey in this region have good defense mechanisms.
The Puffer, who is a very small fish, looks like a very easy meal for its predator. Once the predator puts the Puffer in its mouth, it will regret it and probably never eat the Puffer again. This happens because while being in the predator's mouth, the Puffer inflates itself. The Trunkfish also has a good defense mechanism. That mechanism is that it has poison lip glands. A disadvantage of sand flats is that there isn't a lot of plants life such as coral or grass for predators or prey to hide in.
But they are adapted to the sand in their own ways such as they are able to dig and hide in holes. Some can even live in the holes. In the grass beds region of the coral reef, there are many relationships between the sea creatures. For example, Shrimp live inside a Sea Urchin. The Urchin does not benefit from this relationship but the shrimp gets a habitat where it can survive.
Another relationship is between the cardinal fish and the conch. The cardinal fish lives inside the conch shell where it is protected. One other relationship that takes place in the grass bed region is of the 9-line Gobi and the Urchin. The Gobi lives in the urchin's spine. This does not benefit the urchin at all because the Gobi who eats parasites can also eat the urchin too. The marine life in the cities of coral have a lot of biodiversity and many different relationships between species.
They are able to adapt to the area they live in. The fish and other creatures that live in these areas have great life-saving defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are very interesting to study because you can see how some tiny, helpless looking fish are almost impossible to eat. Relationships in Grass beds are also interesting to learn about because the show how some animals benefit of another.