Voc. abyssal plain-parts of ocean that are flat and 3 km to 4 km in depth. bathyscaph-another type of submersible, self-propelled, free-moving submarine equipped for deep-ocean research. bathysphere-a spherical diving vessel that was first used for deep-ocean exploration. calcareous ooze mostly calcium carbonate. Depths below 4500 m it dissolves in the cold ocean water.

continental margin shallower portions of the ocean floor made up of continental crust. Continental rise sediments formed from a raised wedge at the base of the continental slope. Continental shelf part of the continent that is covered by ocean water. continental slope found at the seaward edge of a continental shelf and is a steeper slope. Core sample scooping up sediments from the deep-ocean basins. Deep ocean basin- made up of oceanic crust.

Fracture zones-new crust breaking. Guyot-flat topped, submerged seamounts. Mud very fine silt / clay sized particles of rock that settled on ocean floor. Nodule-potato shaped lumps of minerals that form on the abyssal plains. Ocean floor-made up of continental crust and oceanic crust that lie beneath the ocean waters. Ooze-soft, organic sediment.

Seamount-isolated volcanic mtns. Scattered on ocean floor. Siliceous ooze-mostly silicon dioxide. Sonar-sound navigation and ranging. Submaine canyon-deep valleys in the continental slope and shelf. Submersible-under water research vessels enable oceanographers to study the ocean depths.

Trench-in deep ocean basin deepest features in the earths surface long narrow places. Turbidity current- dense currents that carry lrg. Amounts of sediment down the continental slopes. form when landslides are triggered by earth-quakes or force of gravity.

meteor-a meteroid that enters the earths atmosphere. Meteor shower once the earths atmoshpere, the meteors burn up. Meteorite a meteor or any part of a meteor that is left after it hit's the solar system. Oort cloud a spherical cloud of dust and ice that contain the nuclei of as many as a trillion comets. Orbit period the time required for the planet to make one revolution around the sun.

retrograde motion backward motion moving from east to west. Short period comet have periods of up to 100 yrs. Stony meteorite similar in compostition to the rocks found on the earth. Stony iron meteorite contain both iron and stone and are very rare. Terrestrial planet the 4 planets closest to the sun, mercury, venus, earth, mars.

Trojan asteroid concentrated in groups just ahead of and just behind the planet Jupiter. ch. 20-largest ocean pacific. continental crust and oceanic crust that lie beneath the waters make up the ocean floor. Bathyscaph free moving submaine used for ocean research. Sonar determines depth of clean floor.

Made up of continental crust the continental margins. Submarine canyons formed by turbidty currents. Continental rise are sediments at the base of the continental slope. Deepest part of ocean is trenches. Abyssal plains don't form in part of ocean with trenches. Seamounts-volcanic mtns.

Scattered on ocean basin. Submerged flat seamounts are guyots. Turbidity currents are large sediments that make up the continental rise. Much silica comes from radiolaria and diatoms. Potato shaped minerals-nodules. Muds are very fine particles of silt and clay that settle on ocean floor.

Gas easily dissolves-carbon dioxide. Salinity-amount of dissolved solids in water. Thin layer of ice covering-pack ice. Thermocline- rapid water temp. change. When liquid water is warmed its density decreases.

Wavelength that tends to be reflected is color blue. Process of surface water blown farther offshore and nutrient-deep water rises to take place is called upwelling. Drifting marine plants and animals are plankton. Marine animals that swim are nekton. Sea anemones-benthos. Unstable ocean inviroment-intertidal zone.

Pelagic zone with sun, constant temp. , low pressure is neritic zone. Aquaculture is farming of the ocean. Lumps of minerals are nodules.

Artificial upwelling may be used in future for fertilization. Use of gas has increased lead in ocean. Waters move in giant streams or currents. Effect of earths rotation on winds and ocean currents is coriolis effect. Warm water currents-north and south- flow westward. The gulf stream flows up east coast of US and then up North Atlantic.

Weak current-drift. Still water in North Atlantic is Sargasso Sea. A turbid current that's caused by a landslide is a turbidty current. Deep currents are the result of changes in density of water. A wave is the up and down movement of water. Highest point of wave is its crest.

Time it takes for a wave to to pass a given point is wave period. Length of open water across which wind blows is fetch. Foamy mass of wave or a breaker. Sand bars formed by longshore currents. Tides are daily changes in oceans surface. Difference in level of high tide and low tide is tidal range.

Movement of water toward and away is tidal current. nitrogen is removed from air by nitrogen fixing bacteria. Atmospheric pressure measured at sea level is 1. 03 kg / cm 2. A barometer measures atmospheric pressure. All water /carbon dioxide in atmosphere is in troposphere.

raindrops may separate sunlight into a range of colors causing a rainbow. Process of atmosphere traps warning solar rays at earths surface is called the greenhouse effect. Heat transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. A vertical looping pattern is known as convection cells. Gentle wind covering less than 100 km is called a breeze.

process of ice age changes directly into water vapor is referred as advection. Relative humidity is expressed as percentage. meteor- a meteroid that enters the earths atmosphere. Meteor shower-once in earths atmosphere, the meteors burn up. Meteorite-a meteor or any part of a meteor that is left after it hit's the earth. Meteroid-smaller bits of rock or metal that move throughout the solar system.

Oort cloud a spherical cloud of dust and ice that contains the nuclei of as many as a trillion comets. Orbit period the time required for the planet to make one revolution around the sun. retrograde motion- backward motion moving from east to west. Short-period comet have periods of up to 100 yrs. Stony meteorite-similar in compostition to the rocks found on the earth. Stony-iron meteorite-contain both iron and stone and are very rare.

Terrestrial planet- the 4 planets closest to the sun, mercury, venus, earth, and mars. Trojan asteroid concentrated in groups just ahead of and jus behind planet Jupiter. Rotation of earth on its axis causes moon to appear to rise and set. Moon makes one revolution around earth in 27. 3 days relative to stars. Rate at which moon rotates is due to effect of earths gravity.

Observation of earth can see about 59% of surface of moon. Calendars-system of measuring passage of time. Month-time required for moon to go through phase as it orbits earth or 29. 5 days. Solar year-time required for earth to make 1 orbit around sun. Lunar surface- moon has dark and light patches on it.

Light areas made of light rock. Dark areas-mari as. Rifles are deep crevices that run through the maria. Craters-bowl shaped depressions, formed 4 billion yrs ago. Lunar rocks- various shaped sized meteors struck moon, most collapsed into moon but some left on surface. Big Bang theory is the formation of how the galaxies were formed.

Stellar evolution-nebula- star begins here and forms from cloud of gas and dust. Made up of 70% hydrogen, 28%helium, 2%other. Weak gravitational pull. Gravitational force will increase with an increase in distance.

As density increases so does gravitational attraction. Proto star-shrinking and spinning nebula flattens into a partial area, causes and increase in temp. 29. 4 review-between orbits of mars and Jupiter the asteroid belt is located.

Direction of tail of comet is behind coma. A meteor is different from a meteorite b / c a meteorite is smaller an it burns up in atmosphere. orbits of Trojan asteroids and earth grazers unlike orbits of other asteroids b. c the Trojan asteroids are concentrated in groups jus ahead and jus behind Jupiter. earth grazers have en longed elliptical orbits that sometimes bring them very close to the sun and earth.

On occasion earth grazers to collide on earth. Asteroid-the largest of the smaller bodies in solar system or minor planets. Asteroid belt-most asteroids exist in this region between mars and Jupiter. Astronomical unit-the average distance between the earth and the sun or AU.

Coma- spherical cloud of gas / dust that surrounds nucleus. Comet-orbit the sun in long eclipses, a body of rock, dust, methane, ammonia, ice. Earth grazer-orbit the sun but is not in asteroid belt. have elongated elliptical orbits that sometimes bring them closes to sun and earth. Ellipse-an oval whose shape is determined by 2 pts. Within figure.

Epicycle-the planet revolving in a series of small circles like a chain. Fireball-a meteroid sometimes vaporizes quickly in a brilliant flash of light. Focus-points of a ellipse. Geocentric-earth centered model of solar system. heliocentric-sun model of the solar system.

Inertia-the tendency of a moving body to move in a straight line at a constant speed until an outside force acts on it. Iron-mero rite- have a metallic appearance. Jovian planet-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, -giant planets. long period comet-have periods of several thousand or even several million yrs. deep ocean circulation is formed by gravity and density of water. 2 lrg st.

Factors are temp. and salinity. Seawater becomes denser w / decreased temp. and increased salinity or both. deep ocean circulation is called themohaline circulation or (hot salt) circulation. After they reach the surface ocean water will not reappear for 500 to 2000 yrs.

the circulation of the deep ocean-water at the surface is made cooler by the loss of heat to the atmosphere and increase in salt due to the evaporation of water. The deeper water then sinks towards the ocean bottom and displaces the less dense water. The cold water then floats away from the poles and is replaced by warmer water found at the latitudes. Atlantic ocean is the one mostly studied. Cold enough to freeze the water the salt then dissolves into the colder water and the deep water is the coldest / saltiest .

called the arctic bottom water. Water becomes colder and freezes then sinks to the bottom of atlantic. Antarctic intermediate water formed in the water over brazil the pacific/Indian oceans have colder waters b / c the bering strait does not allow water to flow southward and is usually arctic water. some of these waters may move all the way to CA and japan. Continental slope occurs when the gently slopping of the continental shelf changes and becomes very steep.

It extends from the edge of the continental shelf to a depth of about 6600 ft. steep drop offs that lead from the edge of the continental shelves to the deep-ocean basins. The continental slope makes the seaward edge of the continental which leads into deep water and has a steep gradient compared to continental shelf. continental shelf and seamounts. Every continent is bounded in most cases by zone of shallow water. This part of the continental shelf of continents that is covered by ocean water is the continental shelf.

The shelf usually slopes gently downward from the shore line. Although it is under water a continental shelf is part of the continental margin, not the deep ocean basin. Scattered along the ocean floor are isolated volcanic mtns. Called seamounts. there are 1000 s of seamounts that dot the pacific ocean. They may rise above the surface forming islands flat tops emerge seamounts called guyots.

Oceanic trenches located in the deep ocean basins are the deepest features on the earths surface. These long narrow places are called trenches. Most trenches are located in pacific ring of fire where oceanic plates are sub ducting back into the mantle. Trenches are associated with earthquakes, volcanic mtn ranges, volcanic island arches, deep trenches in the pacific ocean occur offshore of japan.