State a feature of genetic material can be transferred between species because the genetic code is universal Genetic material can be transferred between species because the genetic code is universal Outline a basic technique used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host cell, restriction enzymes, and DNA ligase. Use of E. Coli Most of its DNA is in circular chromosomes It also has plasmids The plasmids are removed and cleaved by restriction enzymes at target sequences DNA fragments from another organism can also be cleaved by the same restriction enzyme and these pieces can be added to the open plasmid and spliced together by ligase The recombinant plasmids formed can be inserted into host cells and cloned. State two examples of the current uses of genetic engineering in agriculture and / or pharmacy Improved crops and animal breeds by increased disease resistance Bacteria that can be made to produce insulin Explain one potential harmful result of genetic engineering Release of genetically engineering organisms into environment that subsequently spread to other species.

E. g. resistance to pesticide to weeds. State what PCR does PCR copies and amplifies minute quantities of nucleic acid State what gel electrophoresis involves the separation of fragmented pieces of DNA according to their charge and size Gel electrophoresis involves the separation of fragmented pieces of DNA according to their charge and size State which process is used in DNA profiling Gel electrophoresis Describe two applications of DNA profiling 1.

Determining Parentage 2. Criminal Cases Outline the process of gene therapy using a named example Defective genes are replaced. White blood cells or bone marrow cells are removed, and by means of a vector, the normal gene is introduced an inserted into the chromosome The cells are replaced in the patient so the normal gene can be expressed Examples are cystic fibrosis.