Memory Strategies 2 Abstract The research is demonstrating the use of memory strategy in an educational setting; this study examines the use of chunking on telephone numbers by students on campus. There were a total of 40 students that participated, and they were split into two groups consisting of 20 students per group. The control group used chunking as their memory strategy for memorizing a list of 10 telephone numbers. In contrast, the experimental group has used no specific strategy to memorize the list of numbers that was given to them. Each group was given 15 minutes to memorize their list of 10 telephone numbers and they had 5 minutes to write it down on paper. People that used memory strategies has shown to have memorized more telephone numbers, than people who don't use any memory strategy to remember their list of numbers.
Memory Strategies 3 Memory Strategies and Chunking People have shown to have better recall on certain tasks when they use specific memory strategies. There are many types of strategies that people can use to improve their memory, but everyone has an effective strategy that suites them most. For activities involving memorizing a list of 10 telephone numbers, chunking would be the best method because it helps aids the sequence of numbers. People can remember about seven items give or take two, which is between five and nine items (Shiffrin, R. M. , & Nosofsky, R.
M. 1994). There's a certain amount of items that everyone can store in their short-term memory. That's why it's important for people to find an effective way of remembering all of the information.
Relatively large amounts of information are contained in a small number of units by chunking items together into composite units (Bousfield, A. K. , & Bousfield, W. A. 1966).
A strategy like chunking can be used to break larger units into smaller ones, so people can have an easier way of comprehending the information that is given to them. This process of separating the items can help a person learn things step by step, which increases their chances of recall. Telephone numbers can be separated into 3 groups, for instance 847 - 504 - 8761. People can start by memorizing 847, then 504 and finally 8761, instead of trying to remember the numbers all together. Brown, A. L.
(1978) conducted a study that dealt with remembering a list of items that is necessary for shopping at the market. His participants had to remember a list of items by categorizing each one by specific groups, such as produce or dairy products. In doing so, each participant was able to find the products they needed. When people broke Memory Strategies 4 down a list of items, it has shown greater results of them retaining all the necessary information. Since each item was categorized, it has made it easier for people to remember things more effectively.
In another study, that involves the uses of memory strategies, students had to remember a list of vocabulary words their teacher had randomly assigned to them. The students memorized the list of vocabulary words by dividing them into groups of similar characteristics (Anderson, J. R. , & Bower, G. H. 1974).
For the students that has used a mnemonic strategy, they have remembered more words than students that remembered the list in a randomly fashion. The results have shown that people have improved their memory capacity; by finding a strategy that helps them recalls more items. In each of the studies, the participants have greater results in retaining more information by using certain strategies to guide them through the task. Their ability to memorize things has improved by the use of repetition and categorizing the list into a meaningful structure. Each person has their own way of interpreting information and remembering that information. When people use any type of strategy, their results are usually better than those who don't use any type of strategy that is useful to them.
Method Participants College students (32 females and 8 males), ranging from the ages of 19-66 years were used as research participants in this study. The mean age for the male is 31. 63 years (SD = 13. 72), and the mean age for the female is 30.
56 (SD = 12. 97). Out of 40 participants, 47% were Hispanic/Spanish Descent, 32% is Black/African-American, Memory Strategies 5 while 18% are Asian/Pacific Islander and this leaves 3% to other. Majority of the study participants has used some sort of memory strategy in their life time to memorize something more effectively.
Part of using a specific memory strategy in memorizing a list of numbers is necessary to retain all the information by smaller chunks. Chunking is used to break larger things into smaller units, so people have an easier way of remembering things. The students had worked in a controlled environment, such as their classroom and each had their own individual desk. Each student had a list of 10 telephone numbers that are identical, and they were given the same amount of time to memorize the list and write down the numbers they recalled. Everything was distributed the same way, and they were equally given the same amount of time. Apparatus I timed both control and experimental groups for 15 minutes while they tried to memorize a list of 10 telephone numbers.
After 15 minutes, I gave each group 5 minutes to write down as many numbers as they can remember. Procedure I asked my father for permission to use his students as my subjects for my experiment. He allowed me to use his students at two different times during the week, so I can collect data from two dissimilar groups of participants. A group of 20 participants formed the control group and another 20 participants formed the experimental group.
Each group of participants was given the informed consent and was told about the nature of the study. Afterwards, they filled out a survey about the demographics, so I can get a Memory Strategies 6 better idea of my sample. The students also received extra credit for volunteering in this experiment and they were able to withdrawal at any given time without a lost of points. The control group was taught to use the chunking method as a memory strategy in retaining a list of telephone numbers.
They were told to break down the telephone numbers by smaller units, to memorize it more effectively. So the participants broke the numbers into a set of 3 and 4 to remember. Whereas, the experimental group was just told to use any memory strategy they can think of to memorize the list of numbers. The duration of the study took about a week for me to conduct the research and analyze the results.
Each result was carefully examined and inserted into excel for further analysis. Results The mean was obtained for each participant, as the result was gathered from everyone. Table 1 shows both the control group and experimental group, along with their mean and standard deviations of both measures. The mean was gathered from the points received by each participant as they wrote down the list of numbers they recalled within 15 minutes. For every set of 3 numbers written down, each participant was given 1 point for the set of numbers written together.
Based on my analysis, it has shown some differences between the two groups. The control group has received an average of 10. 95 point out of 20 participants in that group. Nevertheless, the experimental group has received a score of 9. 9 points out of their group of 20 participants. But they received 5.
5 points on average from both groups combined. For the frequency the control group has received F (1, 40) = 0. 32, p = . 63, where as the other group has receive F (1, 40) = 0.
86, p = . 47 and (all p's >. 10). Memory Strategies 7 The results from both group has shown some slight differences in the memorization of telephone numbers given in 15 minutes. Though, the control group has received more points then the experimental group, there wasn't a significant difference. The only difference is between the participants using a particular memory strategy and those that didn't use any.
A person that has used a strategy has shown to score higher than participants that used no strategy at all. Discussion The finding of this study has indicated that the use of memory strategies has been proven to show higher results of recall on a specific task. People that used some sort of memory strategy has scored higher than people who didn't use any strategy at all. Chunking, a memory strategy used to break larger information into smaller units has shown effectiveness in the memorization of telephone numbers. It helps a person to divide the numbers into sets of 3, which makes it easier for them to memorize.
The results of the research have shown some factors that could have influenced the study. Many of the participants haven't mastered any effective memory strategies that are necessary to memorize a list of numbers. Also, during the sessions for both groups, many students has arrived late which could have interfere with some students trying to memorize the list telephone numbers. The room in which the students were in was really cold, and their mood could have played a role in how they remember the numbers. For both groups the class was taken in the evening and this could have affected their way of thinking. Since their activities during the day could have made them tired and result in not being able to comprehend any information given to them.
Memory Strategies 8 However, each participant was given an equal amount of time to try to memorize their list of numbers and write what they can recall. Everything was carefully explained and distributed to the participants. The control group was told to use the chunking method and was taught to break the items down into bits and pieces. The experimental group on the contrast was simply told to use any memory strategy they can think of to memorize an identical list of numbers. There was a slight difference in the result; but the control group has scored a bit higher than the experimental group. Memory Strategies 9 References Anderson, J.
R. , & Bower, G. H. (1974). Human associative memory. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing.
Badd eley, A. (1992). Is working memory working? The fifteenth Bartlett lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44 A, 1-31. Bousfield, A.
K. , & Bousfield, W. A. (1966). Measurement of clustering and of Sequential in repeated free recall. Psychological Report, 19, 935-942.
Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of meta cognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.
). Advances in Instructional Psychology. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Shiffrin, R. M.
, & Nosofsky, R. M. (1994). Seven plus or minus two: A commentary on capacity limitations. Psychological Review, 101 (2), 357-361. Thorpe, C.
E. & Rowland, G. E. (1965).
The effect of 'natural' grouping of numerals on Short-term memory. Human Factors, 7, 38-44. Memory Strategies 10 Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations of a List of 10 Telephone Numbers Memorized in 15 minutes Period Measure Experimental Memory Strategy (Chunking) - Control Group #'s Memorized N = 20 N = 40 M 10. 95 5. 5 SD 7.
60 No Memory Strategy- Experimental Group #'s Memorized N = 20 N = 40 M 9. 9 5. 5 SD 9. 37 Memory Strategies 11 When you try to memorize something, do you use any memory strategies? Memory Strategies Used #'s of People's that Use or Don't Use Specific Strategies 1. Said No 13 2. Make a note 2 3.
Write it down to rehearse 7 4. Flash cards 5 5. Read out loud 2 6. Practice with others 1 7. Meditate 1 8. Recall & recite it 10 9.
Sing a song or a rhythm 1 10. Remember things by listening 1 12. Word Association 8 13. Color Coding 2 14.
Tape Recorded Lecture 1 In this study, 13 people have answered "No," when they were asked if they used any specific memory strategies. There was 10 people that has used the recall and recite method to memorize things, 8 people used word association to try relate materials to something their familiar with. Also, there were 7 people that wrote information down in order to rehearse it, while 5 people used flashcards to go over their material. There are 3 groups of 2 people that used color coding, reading things out loud and making a note to remember things. On the contrary, there are 5 groups of memory strategies that a person has used: they practice with others, meditate; remember things by listening, sing a song or rhyme and tape-recorded the lecture. The students who have used memory strategies mentioned above, are the ones that have scored higher on recall.
Memory Strategies 12 N = 40 (19 Hispanic/Spanish Descent, 13 Black/African-American, 7 Asian/ Pacific Islander & 1 Other) N = 40 (32 Females & 8 Males).