Abstract Cigarette smoking is of interest to the National Institute on Drug Abuse both because of the public health problems associated with this form of substance abuse and because this behavior represents a prototypic dependence process. In the past few years the government has made every effort to reach the masses, in an attempt to curb the exploitation of tobacco use, and its acceptance among Americas Youngsters. However, cigarette smoking among adolescents is on the rise. The premise that the behavior of adolescents is influenced by the behavior of their parents is central to many considerations of health and social behavior (Ausubel, Monte mayor, & Svajiian, 1977; Band ura & Walters, 1963).
Many young people between 10-18 years of age experiment with smoking, smoking is a personal choice, and usually exploratory in nature. Typically, it takes place in rather young people and is largely dependent on: first, the availability of opportunity to engage in the behavior, second, having a fairly high degree of curiosity about the effects of the behavior; third, in finding it a way of expressing either conformity to the behavior or others (such as parents, older siblings or peers), forth, as in "Miller and Dollar's" explanation of Observational Learning, The Copying behavior effect. This research is to examine the effects of parental smoking (behavior), has, on the decision of teens to smoke cigarettes. Due to prior studies using global measures that may or may not include South Eastern North Carolina. The Fayetteville/Fort Bragg area was chosen for this study to pinpoint the effects in this particular locale. Fort Bragg and Pope Air Force Base have a ver diverse socio-economic and culturally diverse population, which will have a positive effect on randomness of sample selection.
With this association in mind, this researcher is interested in knowing if there is a relationship of Parental influence on Teen Smoking within this Military Community. Introduction The prevalence of cigarette smoking among young teenagers is a growing problem in the United States, many young people between the ages of 10-18 are experimenting with tobacco. During the 1040's and 50's smoking was popular and socially acceptable. Movie stars, sports heroes, and celebrities appeared in cigarette advertisements that promoted and heavily influenced teens. Influence also came from Television and other media sources. The desires to be accepted and to feel grown up are among the most common reasons to start smoking.
Yet, even though teenagers sometimes smoke to gain independence, and to be part of the crowd parental influence plays the strongest role as to whether or their children will smoke, Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), 1991. Children are exposed to and influenced by the parents, siblings, and the media long before peer pressure will become a factor. Mothers should not smoke during pregnancy, nicotine, which crosses the placental barrier, may affect the female fetus during an important period of development so as to predispose the brain to the addictive influence of nicotine. Prenatal exposure to smoking has previously been linked with impairments in memory, learning, cognition, and perception in the growing child. (National Institute of Drug Abuse, 1995) Subsequent follow-up after 12 years suggest that regardless of the amount or duration of current or past maternal smoking, the strongest correlation between maternal smoking and a daughter's smoking occurred when the mother smoked during pregnancy.
NIDA also reported that of 192 mothers and their first born adolescents with a mean age of 12 1/2, the analysis revealed that 26. 6% of the girls whose mother smoked while pregnant had smoked in the past year. The 1991 smoking prevalence estimate of 25. 7% is virtually no different from the previous year's estimate of 25. 5%. If current trends persist, we will not meet one of the nation's health objectives, particularly a smoking prevalence of no more than 15% by the year 2000.
When comparing the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs, only cigarette use did not decline substantially among high school senior among 1981 to 1991. In contrast studies performed by "household survey" by the NIDA and the CDC, (Centers for Disease Control) in 1991 and 92 respectively, suggested that the strongest influence on teenage smoking is parents. Research also revealed that approximately three fourths of adult regular smokers smoke their first cigarette before the age of 18. This data was acquired while trying to determine the brand preferences of young smokers to determine what encouraged them to smoke and to suggest smoking prevention or smoking cessation strategies, the studies found that in over 80% of the households surveyed, one or both parents smoked. Many teenagers begin smoking to feel grow-up. However, if they are still smoking when they reach 30, the reason is no longer to feel like an adult; at this point, they are smoking from habit.
Goodwin, D. W. , Gaze, S. B.
(1984). Young children who see older children or family members smoking cigarettes are going to equate smoking with being grown up. Patterns of both drinking and smoking, which are closely associated, are strongly influenced by the lifestyles of family members peers and by the environments in which they live. Minimal, moderate, and heavy levels of drinking, smoking, and drug use, among family members are strongly associated with very similar patterns of use among adolescents. Bentley, P. , New coomb, M.
, (1989). Parents who smoke and wish they didn't should concentrate on their own efforts to stop and hope that their offspring get the message. Another good view of smoking among young people can be obtained from the federal government's Annual National Survey of drug use among seniors, and now other high school students. Reports of cigarette use in the past years have declined since the peak of almost 40% in 1975. The 30% mark was crossed in 1981, with a very gradual further decline to 25. 7% in 1991 and increased to 27.
8% in 1992, Johnston, O'Malley, (1993). According to cognitive social learning theory, boys and girls learn appropriate behavior through reinforcement and modeling. To date, numerous studies have examined parental influence on teenage smoking and has yielded equivocal results Due to the implications of cigarette smoking behavior for the public health and the view that smoking is the prototypical dependence process. Research taken from the TAPS (Teen-age Attitudes and practices Survey) 1992, reported that if parents smoke, their children are more likely to smoke. In regions of the United States that was surveyed, it was documented that 9135 of 11609 (79%), of the respondents to the survey of teenage smokers lived in households where one or both parents / guardians smoked tobacco.
This information was taken from household samples of adolescents ages 12-18 done by a computer Assisted Telephone interviewing system (CAT). The goal of this research is to focus upon the systematic compilation of data collected in this survey / correlation study and serve as a basis for designing feasible and effective treatment strategies as well as enhance our understanding of dependence associated with cigarette smoking and substance abuse. Method Design Questions will be of nominal and rating format (attached), Non respondents will not be included in the study. The questions (10), will be on a 8 1/2 x 11 sheet of paper. The questions will be divided into three categories, (health history of parents present smoking habits, and general.
The Dependent variable used in this study is adolescent smoking behavior. Subjects A total of 500 teens male and female 14-18 years old, randomly selected from various areas around the Fort Bragg, Pope Air Force Base, and Fayetteville area. $2 will be given in exchange for participation. Materials Questionnaires will be given to individuals upon their approval to participate in the study, a number two pencil will be used to write with.
Procedure Participants will be chosen at random from either the Post Exchange and the movie theaters of the Fort Bragg area. Participation will be voluntary after an explanation of the study. Since this research involve minors, each participants will sign a release form. Each respondent will be allotted 15 minutes to complete the questionnaire, and not to discuss the contents with other participants. However participants, will be told that they can discuss this issue with parents / guardians .
A phone number of the researcher will be given to each respondent in case of any afterthoughts. Non respondents will not be included in the study. The questions (10), will be on a 8 1/2 x 11 sheet of paper and consist of both, true / false , and nominal data, yes / no . The questions will be divided into three categories, (health history of parents present smoking habits, and general. chi- square and t-distribution statistics will be used to identify significant differences between sub samples. References Bauman, K.
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