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... determined that this "hole" firstbegan forming in the mid 1970's. Since then ozoneconcentrations in this area have grown steadilythinner, with depletions of up to 60 percent occurringin recent years. While industrial chemicals are theprimary cause of ozone depletion, the extreme cold andweather conditions of arctic winters contribute to itsdepletion. As the temperatures drop., ice clouds formin the upper atmosphere. These clouds provide a "spot"for a combination of chemicals and sunlight to reactwith CFC's, releasing the chlorine to attack ozone.Thus ozone layer depletion is more severe near thepoles.Every human being should take part in the fightto stop global warming.
"The government is the keyto this and they better do something soon or it willbe too late. First, the American government shouldsponsor a meeting between the nations of this world. They should establish a committee for handling themoney, politics, and scientific research in order tohelp cut back the emission of gases into theatmosphere. Every country will contribute by donatingmoney. Each country would be required to give 0.01 oftheir GNP to this committee. If they refuse they willbe boycotted and the participating countries will sellnothing to them. "(Epa.gov/ozone).Global warming is a big threat to our nationand the world.
If we do not act now, it may be toolate. "The Sea levels could rise at 2 to 5 times therate of the past 100 years, endangering coastal areasin the Americas and Europe, and devastating islandnations like Indonesia, where more than 45 millionpeople live at coastal elevations within a meter ofsea level. The Air pollution could get much worse. Allareas, not just major cities, could see an increase inthe pollutants that increase the frequency andseverity of asthma attacks, emphysema, bronchitis,other lung diseases etc. These predictions come fromthe United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC), a 2,000-member body of internationalclimate scientists and experts that is recognized asthe authority on the science of global warming. Theother major effects severely caused by the ozone layerdepletion are spreading diseases and illness, croplosses, coastal flooding and loss of drinking watersupplies, droughts etc. Of course, there is no sureway of telling if there actually is a greenhouseeffect, but let^1s not take any chances.
Look at whatis happening to this world, and you will see thatthere is a pollution problem. "(Epa.gov/ozone). Many people suggest that the uncertainties of globalwarming provide an excuse to do nothing and wait formore scientific research to be done. "The mainsolution is to slow down the change of the climate byreducing the amount of greenhouse gases emitted intothe atmosphere. "Solar energy, wind, hydrogen gas,biomass, and other renewable energy sources also needto be used and deeply considered as solutions to slowdown global warming, and reduce carbon dioxideemissions to the atmosphere. Deforestation must beslowed and reforestation of previously forested landthat has become agriculturally useless has to bepromoted. That will require conservation incentiveschemes and improvement of farm yields to reduce thepressure to clear new land.
This will not be nearlyas expensive as coping with the costs of globalwarming."(Ewann, page 87~183). Controllingpopulations is also a necessity in order to controlthe consumption of energy and fossil fuels, but youcould write a whole other paper on if they couldimplement those laws and what human rights thatinterferes with. Over the last 100 years the global temperatures havebeen increasing slowly but steadily. Since 1980 thetemperature has risen 0.2 degrees C (0.4 degrees F )each decade. "Scientists predict that if we continueputting the same amount of gas into the atmosphere bythe year 2030 the temperature will be rising as much as 0.5 degrees C (0.9 degrees F ) ormore per decade. Over all the global temperaturecould rise There are steps being taken at this moment to reducethe gases put into the air but it still isn't enough. We need to cut back more by taking a few easy steps.
Plant a tree, or take a bus to work instead of drivingyour own car. Those things may not seem like a lot,but if more and more people do it, it will make adifference."Through the eyes of most scientists,global warming is seen as a very serious and severethreat. Then what is the future of avoiding the problem. Willthe Ozone Layer Recover? Scientists feel the ozonelayer should recover, if ozone -depleting substancesare eliminated. Under the Montreal Protocol, aninternational agreement to protect the ozone layer,action has been taken to reduce ozone-depletingsubstances. The build-up of the most significant CFC'sin the lower atmosphere has slowed considerably, andone of the key chemicals, CFC-11, is now decreasing.Because of the time it takes for these chemicals tomove from ground level to the stratosphere, the impactof the Montreal Protocol will now be felt for manyyears. It is estimated that the ozone layer shouldrecover by about 2050- providing that all human -madeozone depleting substances are eliminated.
However,long term predictions in the case of the ozone layerdepletion are uncertain because the processed of ozonedepletion are not all understood. As well, globalwarming and the exhaust from high-flying aircraft maysignificantly affect the recovery of the ozone layer.Now, since it is a big problem that today's world hasto face such harsh problems due to the ozone layerdepletion, there must be a definite way to control thelayer. Nobody is going in the sky and fix it up asthere is no such technique developed till now. But theways are to prevent it. Human consciousness performsthe major intervention in controlling of the ozonelayer depletion. There are many things which a humanbeing can do voluntarily for controlling the ozonelayer depletion.
One Such way is Car Air Conditioner Tips. People mustGo only to service facilities with EPA-certifiedtechnicians and Ask if refrigerants from their vehiclewill be recovered and recycled during servicing . Theemphasis is on carrying out the Repair in all leaks inthe a/c system (not required by federal law, buthelpful in protecting the ozone layer). About 80million cars on the road today use CFC refrigerants intheir air-conditioning (AC) systems. If leaky systemswere repaired, it would prevent the release of about30 million pounds of CFCs this year. Also, it isimportant to Ask about converting their cars to asubstitute refrigerant if the a/c system needs majorrepair The used refrigerant can be recycled andreused. Asking their local government or waste haulerif the refrigerant will be removed before theappliance is discarded. Concept of saving naturalresources should be developed.
And each individualshould perform his goodwill duty towards theenvironment on the way of controlling the pollutionand thereby saving himself and world from its adverseeffects.Basically, the solutions are of three types,technological approaches, political approaches, andeconomic approaches. "The technological suggestionsare as follows: One suggestion has been to releasesimple hydrocarbons such as ethane or propane into theatmosphere. These compounds are known to react withthe chlorine atoms from the CFCs that initiates ozonedepletion. Compounds like hydochlorofluorocarbons(HCFCs) and hydrofulorocabons (HFCs) have been broughtinto use. The advantage of HCFCs and HFCs is that theytend to break down quickly in the atmosphere. Everyone agrees that the best way to deal with this problemis prevention (political approach)."(Bernard, p.p.329-453). In 1989 some governments agreed tostrengthen the Montreal Protocol. The most significantdecision by the industrialized nations was to phaseout methyl bromide by the year 2010.
The Environmentalprotection Agency announced a four-pronged programs in1992 to as economic approach to reduce the release ofCFOs, are restricted to produce the amount needed bythe market. The second element involves a marketablepermit system. Under this, each of the seven U.S.companies that are authorized to produce CFCs, arerestricted to produce the amount needed by the market."The second element involves implementi8ng Excise Taxon the sale of CFOs. The third element focuses n theguaranteeing use of the safe alternatives. The fourthelement focuses n the recycling and reusing the ozonedepleting chemicals. Regulations have been establishedthat require companies to re-use ozone depletingmaterials rather than release them into theatmosphere.
For example, refrigerant used in theoutmoded refrigeration system must be removed and thenreused in newly manufactured equipment. "(Cogan,Introduction).Many other steps can be taken individually, at anational level as well as at an international level.To make the control of the ozone layer depletion.Together, the Individuals can make a difference. Thereare many Climate Smart tips to protect the Earth. Inthe home, the individuals can cut their utility billsby purchasing energy efficient appliances, fixtures,and other home equipment and products. The averagehouse is responsible for more air pollution and carbondioxide emissions than is the average car. The Energyconsumption can be reduced by up to 40 percent bypurchasing home products that display the ENERGY STARlabel. Look for the label on refrigerators, washingmachines, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment,televisions, VCR's, and audio equipment. Insulatingthe home and tuning up the furnace. Low-flow faucetsin the showers and sinks should be used. Thetemperature of the hot water tank should be lowered to120 degrees.
The water -heater and all the water pipesshould be insulated. The persons living in the areashaving the sunny climate should install solar heatingsystem to provide hot water. There are many areas oflife where a person can take smart actions that willsave money while helping the environment. Some are thethings that can be done inside the home, othersoutside in the yard, on the roads and even consideringmajor investments. In fact, there are things a personcan do anywhere and everywhere. In many ways a personcan help reduce carbon dioxide pollution and improvethe environment.
Climate Change is a global problem requiring actionfrom the entire international community. Countriesfrom around the world are working together to sharetechnologies, experience, resources and talent tolower net greenhouse gas emissions and reduce thethreat of global climate change. The United Statesparticipates in and supports several internationalefforts designed to help countries to address climatechange. One important strategy for reducing globalgreenhouse gas emissions is developing and sharingclimate-friendly technologies, commonly referred to asTechnology Corporation. These efforts can occurbetween nations, private entities, and organizationsaround the world. The United States participates invarious bilateral and multilateral technologycooperation initiatives that aim to encourage the useof technologies that will reduce greenhouse gases.
Ascountries continue to grow and develop, internationalcooperation will become increasingly important as theglobal community searches for ways to meet the climatechange challenge efficiently and effectively. The keyto successful cooperation is finding the activitiesthat will help all countries achieve their economic,environmental, and the developmental goals in aclimate-friendly manner in that.Today, action is occurring at every level to reduce,to avoid, and to better understand the risks that areassociated with global warming. On a national level,the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)coordinates the world's most extensive research efforton global warming. In addition, the ClintonAdministration is actively helping to address thechallenge of global warming while, at the same time,strengthening the economy. Many steps can be taken toreduce global warming. A person can himself forgeahead the world to some extent in the ozone layerdepletion by Insulating their home, tuning up theirfurnace, and installing efficient showerheads.
Next toleave their car at home two days a week. Next torecycle their entire home Ms Newsprint, cardboard,glass, and metal. Installing a solar thermal system tohelp provide their hot water can also do it. Then whenthey replace the washing machine, the emphasis shouldbe laid on buying a low-energy, low water use model.It's also important to buy food and other productswith reusable or recyclable packaging. Then, When therefrigerator is replaced, the emphasis should be laidto buy the high-efficiency model. To put energy-savinglightbulbs in the three most used lights in theirhouse. Also the important thing is to plant more treesand thereby responding the nature with an overwhelmingoutput. Finally the question arises that, have all thesesteps towards the solution shown any results? Theanswer would be in affirmative.
. On a global level,countries around the world have expressed a firmcommitment to strengthening international responses tothe risks of climate change." The U.S. is working tostrengthen international action and broaden theparticipation from people around the world.Communities around the world can help by trying not toemit such harmful gases into our atmosphere. Theexperts credited a 1987 protocol singed in Montreal,where governments agreed to limit the use of harmfulchemicals. Alternative refrigerants, parts, and newequipment are available now for all CFC airconditioning and refrigeration equipment. As a resultof worldwide efforts to protect the ozone layer, EPAexperts 295 million fewer cases world wide ofnon-melanoma skin cancer over the next century."(Global Warming, Journal)"The effects are devastating.
It is ten years since thescientists and the nations have been working towardsthe solutions of this problem. The number ofsignatories in the Montreal Protocol has increasedfrom 24 o 163 countries. Some western countries havealready reduced the release of these substances byhalf, while other countries like China and Brazil aretrying to follow suit. Unfortunately, it reckoned thatthe illegal trade in one of the compounds, CFC's"(Global Warming, Journal). We can not wait foranother fifteen years to clean it up. Clearly, thetime to act to reduce global warming pollution is now.Reducing global warming pollution is important toreverse the increasing global trend. If no cuts aremade today, and global warming pollution is allowed tocontinue, the world could suffer sudden anddevastating climate shifts. Thus, it could be only byhuman intervention, that such major problem could beprevented.
Prevention is better than cure. Whatdifferences can one make? When faced with thisquestion, individuals should recognize thatcollectively they could make a difference. Think backto the days before recycling became popular- wheneveryone threw everything out in the trash. In lessthan 20 years, most households have gone fromrecycling little to nothing to recycling newspapers,plastics, glass and meta. Many businesses recyclepaper and buy recycled products and many industriespractice source reduction in their packaging efforts.An entire mindset has changed in one generation.Taking action on global warming is similar. In somecases, it only takes a little change in lifestyle andbehavior to make some big changes in greenhouse gasreductions. For other type of actions, the changes aremore significant. "Individuals can make a Difference"identifies actions that many households can take thatreduce greenhouse gas emissions in addition to otherbenefits, including saving you money.
The actionsrange from changes in the house, in the yard, in thecar, and in the store. Everyone's contribution countsand its very important to save the environment. Thus,every individual thinking the nature to be their ownaffecting basis, develop a strategy to work the mostout of it in reducing pollution to the maximumstrategy possible and also implement strategies thatgoverns the controlling of the ozone layer depletion .It would only lead by common's big efforts that wouldcontrol the hazardous side- substances causing theozone layer depletion and thereby improve the natureand thereby human life, which would ultimately lead totheir benefit. Which means the prosperity for theliving species in the nature.BIBILOGRAPHY:-1. "Technology and Environment", Jesse. H. Ausubel,Washington D.C., National Academy of Engineering,1990.2. "Hazardous Air Pollutants", The London Worshop,Paris, O.E.C.D., 1995.4. "Transportation And Global Climate Change",David.L.Greene,Washington D.C., American Council for Energy, 1993.5. "Climate Change", J.T.Houghton,New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996.6.
"Can we delay a Greenhouse Warming?", Kevin,New York, Cambridge University Press, 1993.7. "Climate of Hope", Christopher Flavin,Jane.A.Peterson, New York, Worldwatch Papers, 1996.8. "The Nature of Light and Colour in Open Air",M.Minnaerts,New York, Pover Publications Inc., 1996.9. "Physics of Climate", Jose.P.Peixote,New York, American Institute of Physics, 1991.10. "World Watch Paper", Christopher Flavin,New York, Journal, 1991.11. "Composition, Chemistry And Climates OfAtmosphere", Hanwant.B.Singh,New York, Nostrand Reinholders, 1995.12.
"Weather And Climate Modification", Journal,Washington D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1995.13. "The GreenHouse Effect", Harnold.W.Bernard Jr.,Massacheussets, Ballinger Publishing Company, 1990.14. "Atmospheric Ozone", 1st Volume,Houston, National Aerounatics and SpaceAdministration, 1985.15. "Atmospheric Ozone", 2nd Volume,Houston, National Aerounatics and SpaceAdministration, 1988.16. "Atmospheric Ozone",3rd Volume,Houston, National Aerounatics and SpaceAdministration, 1990.17. The Greenhouse Gambit", 1st Edition, DouglasCogan,Washington D.C., Investor's Responsibility ResearchCentres, 1992.18.
"The Heat is On", 1st Edition, Ross Gelbspan,New York, Addison-Wesley, 1997.19. "American Geophysical Union", Journal,Washington D.C., International Union ofGeophysics, 1989.20. "Global Warming", David Bender, Brano Leenes,San Francisco, Oppossing Viewpoints Seires, 1997.21. "The Challenge of the Global Warming", 3rdEdition, Dean Edwin Abrahamson,California, Island Press, 1990.22. "Global Warming", Melvin.A.Benarde,New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1992.23. "The Oceans And the Climate", Grant.R.Bigg.,New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996.24. Global Atmospheric Chemical Change", C.N.Hewitt,New York, Elsevier Applied Sciences, 1993.25. "The Earth Care Annual", Russel Wild,Pennsylvania, National Wildlife Federation,1996.26. "Global Environmental Change", Paul.C.Stone,Washington D.C., National Research Institute, 199227.
"The Greenhouse Effect", Douglas Cogan,New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995.28. "Tuning Up the Heat", Bernson Ewann,New York, World Wildlife Fund, Jan-2000.29. Global Warming", Journals,New York, Public Interest Research Groups, 1999.30. "Global Warming and Climate Changes",http://www.edf.org/programs/GRAP/31. "Global Warming",http://www.enviroweb.org/edf/(1998)32. Robert.L.Goldstein, "Global Warming Central",http://www.law.pace.edu/env/energy/global warming.html33. "The U.S.Global Change Research InformationOffice", Global Warming and Climate,http://www.gcrio.org/gwcc/toc.html34. "Sierrra.S.", "Research On Global Warming",http://www.toowarm.com/35. "Global Warming Ecology", The Meeting Analysis,http://ecology.about.com/education/ecolog y/library/weekly/aa112597.htm?iam=mt&terms=%2Bglob al+%2Bwarming36.
"Global Warming"-Research Issues,http://solar-center.stanford.edu/sun-on-ear th/glob-warm.html.37. "Ozone Depletion",http://www.epa.gov/ozone/(1999)..
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