Project Management The Project Manager has some tasks that have to be carried out, he / she is responsible for the full project. The Project Manager has to make the best use of all the resources so the project can be completed successfully. The project Manager sets the boundaries for the project, such as schedules and what is done and when it has to be completed. There are various tasks the project manager is responsible for such as: 1) Time and resource allocation and management 2) Setting up a team structure, specifying responsibilities, lines of command and reporting 3) Motivating the team, and establishing communication channels 4) Project planning, scheduling and progress control 5) Managing and controlling change to the system and overall quality 6) Interfacing and leasing with the client / user and senior management The important attributes needed in a person, so they are able to manage a project to a successful goal are: Leader Intelligent Chairman Competent Communicator Methodical Listener Observant Ambassador Perceptive Motivator Positive Decision-maker Resilient Problem solver Reliable Generalist Active There are many aspects that have to be considered when recruiting someone capable of controlling the life cycle of a project. The integration of the person into the team is just as important as having the specialist skills needed. You could say integration into the team is more important as the person can always get training to achieve these skills.
A type of advertisement of what is needed to fill the post will have to be drawn up then advertised, internally and externally through national, local and technical press or other media. People who are experienced, loyal, motivated, with good team spirit and have ambition are desired. Personal recommendations, Interviews, aptitude, references and psychometric testing are methods that can be used to select the right individual. The individual does not have to be a great manager as they can sent on various courses to improve their managerial skills. The person might have the majority of the attributes required but no knowledge in the task that needs caring out. In the event that no suitable person is found to lead the team the project might have to be carried out by external contractors.
The Project Team The number of people in the team would depend on the size of the project and nature, the skills from the individuals that would be needed to complete the project. The project team would also have sub teams specialist in their field. A project about implementing a new computer system would require IT specialist staff, user representatives. Teams are brought together at the start of the project as it allows them to become efficient due to good communication. The selection of the project management team can be a very difficult process, because the team could also be done within a pool of IT specialist.
With a nominated leader of the group, but this can cause loyalty problem towards the leader, which can cause the standard of the project to drop. Titles of Members in the Team Chairman = Team Leader Plant = the person who is the source of ideas, which they present to the team Shaper = a person who creates the team participation, by putting forward ideas for activities Evaluator = this person is a key part of the group as they are objective & can navigate the team to reaching the project goals Team Worker = the negotiator of the group Finisher = the person who sees deadlines reached Company Worker = the person who takes ideas and turns them into tasks to be carried out Resource Investigator = the problem solver of the groupMotivationThe team leader should make the team member, acknowledge how important the project is and due to this the types of motivation available, which will make the team work harder and try to meet deadlines and it is in their best interest. Motivating factors- Company car- Salary- Bonus- Overtime- Holidays- Share options- Other 'Perks " Work Content- Career Prospects- Good Management- Appreciation- Interesting- Involvement- Responsibility- Development Environment- Equipment- Air conditioning- Space (Ergonomics) - Room temperature- Lighting- Job security- Hours of work Project Estimation Estimating Techniques Top-Down global cost for the development is estimated and then refined. Bottom-Up The project is broken down into two various sub-systems and estimates are made by those not responsible; these are then aggregated to provide a total estimate. Expert Judgement Ask the oracles and compare their results with your estimate.
Analogy This when the system is compared to others similar in the end product, and estimation is done in accordance with the comparison. Parametric Modelling/Algorithmic This is when size and complexity are measured using arithmetic yardsticks. I think the best methods to use for pricing are top-down and bottom up. The two techniques would be combined in there usage. Top-down gives a starting estimate, which is then refined, as in top-down design, the refinement is carried out when more detail about the systems requirements are disclosed. The estimate is altered to match the system when it is split into sub-systems.
An estimated figure is then given to the client, who knows the figure could decrease or increase. Bottom-up technique would not sufficient used by it as it has a large margin of error, so it would be better to combine the techniques. The estimate is based on the system to be built. Identifying Risks to the Project The project manager should consider the following topics during planning.
What could go wrong? What chance (or possibility) is there of this happening? What would be the effect in cost and time? What alternatives can be utilised - (contingencies)? Project Assurance Team The project most be successful or be as close as it can to the end goal and the best way to do this is to set up a Project Assurance Team. - A member of the organisation, perhaps the auditor, who has the task of overseeing expenditure and results. - A member of the user department, usually in a supervisory role, who is aware of the current working practices and can judge the practicalities of any proposals. - A member who is technically knowledgeable in the particular skills being utilised in the development. - A representative of a key supplier - e.
g. where priority databases are being used, as required. Risk Drivers These are possible risks within the system Client understanding of requirements Modularity of the project Duration of project Maturity of development environment Designer understanding of application domain Availability of existing products as examples Technical capability of project team Team experience of target operating system Sub-contractor / third party involvement Ease of liaison with client / user Clarity of liaison with client / user Project team turnover Complexity of product requirements Volatility of requirements Stability of interfaces Inflexible specification Project team size These risks are evaluated using techniques such as software evaluation packages, experience. Difficulty of application Ability to do testing out with the live environment Designer experience of the environment Maturity of hardware and software base Contingency Planning After identifying the possible risks to the project a contingency plan must be drawn up to counter act, to solve the problem if any should occur. Things such as having flexible time would be good helping the team as they would not have to be to rush about getting in on time just as long as the hours are made up in the end. The other areas that can cause problems is the outside delivery staff which bring various stock for the project.
These outside companies might have ran out of stock or cannot deliver on required days. The team members will have to be set up working on another part of the project till the parts are delivered. Activities, which are at risk, are identified and a cost / benefit analysis is applied to the following options Reduce high technology dependence Increase the skill levels for the activities Increase management support to the activity Increase the resource development (people / money ) Allow more flexibility to the project by creating alternative solutions in certain conditions of risk occurrence Review lead-time for procurement of hardware, software, supplies Review the time allocated to the activities (and hence the project) Project Planning Project plans include An introduction and summary Commitment acceptance Project Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Schedule Statement of Work (SOW) Planning plays vital parts in the following parts of the development cycle- Project definition- Planning- Implementation- Control- Change Management Planning a project brings the following benefits- Structure and order for the project- Helps clarify the details of the project- Enables the monitoring of progress and evaluation- Visibility to control, especially for large, complex projects- Allows for contingency for change Project is broken down into 1. 1 Project definition and management 1. 2 System specification 1. 3 Program development 1.
4 Implementation This can be further subdivided 1. 1. 1 Feasibility Study 1. 1. 2 Project Board 1. 1.
3 Terms of Reference 1. 1. 4 Evaluation Criteria 1. 2. 1 Design Questionnaires 1.
2. 2 Arrange Interviews 1. 2. 3 Produce Data Flow Diagrams 1. 2.
4 Change Control 1. 3. 1 Produce Modules 1. 3.
2 Produce Detailed Specifications 1. 3. 3 Produce Test Strategy and Tests 1. 4.
1 Procure Hardware 1. 4. 2 Procure accommodation Outlining the milestones is an important feature, which checks the progress of the objective. After the Project Objectives have been defined, the overall planning process should be established. This will be your basic strategy for reaching the objectives set. A large number of Project Management software uses the following steps as the basis of their design...
Firstly the development stage has to be fully completed... Identify major project phases. Identify major activities within phases. Identify major tasks within activities.
Identify elements within tasks. Identify external dependencies. Estimate duration of external dependencies. Estimate effort required for each element task. Develop logical sequence within each activity.
Develop internal dependencies. Develop sequence of major phases. Allocate available resources. Analyse under / over -allocation of resources. Roll up data. Analyse resulting end dates.
Assess opportunities to modify effort / duration 's / resource allocations. Modify and test scenarios. Roll up and baseline the results. Track progress against baseline.
Uses automated reporting to identify incomplete tasks, impact of slippage, over-allocation of resources.