Oxygen Oxygen Atomic number 8 Atomic weight 15. 9994 Melting point-218. 4 oC (-361. 1 oF) Boiling point-183.
0 oC (-297. 4 oF) Density (1 atom, 0 oC) 1. 429 g / l Valence 2 electronic con fig. 2-6 or 1 s 22 s 22 p 4. Oxygen is one of the must important factors that made it possible for life to exist in this planet. Oxygen is also one of the elements must found in earth.
Oxygen can be found in in metals, water, and even the one thin that protects us from the powerful sun rays. Oxygen is a very unstable element, which makes it easy to make compounds with other elements creating different kinds of solids and liquids. Oxygen is found in the air as O 2, and found in the ozone as O 3. Oxygen is essential to all planets' life.
The Discovery of Oxygen On August 1, 1774, Joseph Priestly examined the effect of intense heat on mercuric oxide. He noted that an air or gas was readily expelled from the specimen. To his surprise a candle burned in this with a remarkably vigorous flame. He called this new substance air in terms of the current chemical theory of combustion. When he went to Paris on 1775 he showed his discovery to Antoine Lavoisier. When Antoine examined the gas he found that air combined with metals and other substance.
Because some of the compounds form acids he called the gas Oxygen form the Greek words for sour and I Produce. Oxygen in the Atmosphere The Atmosphere surrounding the earth is a mechanical mixture of gases. The most important of these gases are oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is the essential element for life. It is odorless, colorless, tasteless, and slightly heavier than air. The chief commercial source of oxygen is the atmosphere.
Oxygen may be separated from the mixture of gases that make up the atmosphere. This is done by physical means by subjecting air to very high pressures and low temperatures until a point is reached where it passes form the gaseous into the liquid state. Than the liquid is introduce to some warm, so that nitrogen, which has a lower boiling point then oxygen, evaporates off. Oxygen as first prepared by heating certain metals oxides, including mercury oxide.
Ozone Ozone (O 3), named for the Greek word for "smell," is a poisonous, colorless and tasteless gas with a distinctive smell. Molecules of ozone are probably the source of the smell that can be detected close to working electrical equipment such as motors and TVs. If a vehicle with a catalytic converter is started cold, ozone can be detected in the exhaust fumes. Most ozone is found high in the atmosphere in a region of the stratosphere called the ozone layer. Here ozone is vital part for life by protecting us form ultraviolet rays of the sun. Ozone absorbs the ultraviolet rays, which are harmful to both plat life and animal life.
Ozone is usually prepared by passing a silent electric discharge through oxygen. Because of its powerful oxidizing properties ozone is widely used for sterilizing water and for air purification. It also is applied in organic chemistry in, which is the reaction of ozone with unsaturated compounds such as the hydrocarbon ethylene. Oxygen Oxides Oxides are any of a large and important class of chemical compounds in which oxygen is combined with another element. Almost all elements form oxides, which vary in properties according to the element. Metal oxides are crystalline solids that contain a metal cation and the oxide anion O 2.
They usually react with acids to form salt or with water to form bases. For example, calcium oxide (CaO) reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH 2) ), and if it is combined with hydrochloric acid it forms calcium carbonate (Ca Cl 2), a salt. Nonmetal oxides are volatile compounds in which the oxygen atoms are linked covalently to the nonmetal atom. They react with bases to form salts and with water to form acids. For example, sulfur trioxide (SO 3) reacts with water to form sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4), and reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4), a salt. There also amphoteric oxides they contain oxygen along with cations such as aluminum, tin, or zinc: they react either with acids or with water to form salts.
For example, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3) reacts with hydrochloric acid to form aluminum chloride (Al Cl 3) and it reacts with hydroxide to form sodium aluminate's (NaAlO 2). Respiration Respiration refers to the gaseous interchange between an organism and it's environment taking in oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide. Inhalation (the breathing of air into the lungs and the diffusion of oxygen form the inspired air across the pulmonary membrane in the blood stream). Together with exhalation (the passage of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs and the breathing out of air), constitutes only one phase of respiration.
The second phase is the transportation of oxygen by the blood to tissues a round the body and the transportation of carbon dioxide from tissue to the lungs. The third phase is the absorption of oxygen into tissue cells and the tissue use of oxygen. "External respiration" is the exchange of gases between the circulation blood and the air. "Internal respiration," on the other hand, is the exchange of gases between the circulating blood and the various tissue cells as they use oxygen and produce waste carbon dioxide.
Oxygen Combustion Oxygen has yet another property, which is also very important, and that is combustion. The first commercial use of oxygen was for limelight illumination in theaters, but since the 1950 s oxygen has been used in welding and medicine since the turn of the century and in steel. Iron and steel need oxygen to accelerate melting point and to remove impurities. Steel consumes oxygen in massive scale. Oxygen is also used by many industries in a variety on oxidation processes. Oxygen provides a heating source for fuel gasses for many welding, cutting and metal fabrication processes.
Oxygen-fed furnaces and burners are also found in non-ferrous metal plants, brick making kilns, pulp and paper mills and in glass manufacturing. Oxygen-enhanced combustion increases productivity and help to reduce harmful combustion by-products. Combustion is the process of burning. Is a chemical reaction that releases energy. For example a form of combustion is the burning of coal, where the main reaction involves converting carbon and oxygen to carbon dioxide.
In conclusion oxygen affects or life more than any other element. We need oxygen to breathe, to protect us form sun rays, for combustion, and oxygen also makes a lot of compound needed for survival. Oxygen is needed by all life in this planet. It also responsible for maybe one of the most important of it's compounds which is water (H 2 O). Oxygen is needed for combustion, which is use, by industries. Oxygen is also the most abundant element on Earth.
Bibliography I. web (Gr. oxus, sharp, acid, and genes, forming; acid former) For many centuries, workers occasionally realized air was composed of more than one component. II. web Oxygen Atomic Number: 8 Chemical Symbol: O Electronic Configuration: [He]2 s 22 p 4 Abundance: . Earth: 4.
74 x 105 ppm. Solar System: 6. 92 x 108 (rel. to [H] = 1 x 1012) III. web Oxygen - (Gr. oxus, sharp, acid, and genes, forming; acid former), O; at.
wt. 15. 9994 (3); at. no.
8; t. p. -218. 7916 deg C; b. p.
-182. 95 deg C; valence 2. For many centuries, workers occasionally realized air was composed of more than one component.