THESIS: Since first being implemented, policewomen have proven themselves to be extremely effective and essential elements of law enforcement, facing many inequalities along the way. While recent advances in equality have been made, law enforcement is still seen as a male-dominated field. If we are to see further progress in the equivalence of the field, it is important to continue to work for gender equality within our nations policing institutions. I. Fore-runners of woman police movement A.

Movement began after civil war with female philanthropic groups, both in the United States and in Great Britain 1. Chicago Womens Club 2. Female Protective League B. The original premise of the female presence in police work was to protect female inmates from abuse by male members of the field C. An additional aspect of this was preventing the moral corrosion of women and children D. First policewomen 1.

Lola Baldwin a. Organizes group in 1905 in Portland, Oregon which death with social conditions threatening young girls and women b. Agents of this organization are known as operatives as they resist the idea of being called officers 2. Alice Stebbins Wells a. First officially commissioned policewoman in the United States in Los Angeles in 1910 b. Theology student and social worker c.

Patrolled dance halls, skating rinks, arcades, theatres, etc. E. Annual Conference of Charities and Corrections 1. 1915 Baltimore, MD 2. Creation of first association for female police work II. Presence of policewomen around world A.

Great Britain 1. 1907- first police aide appointed to take statements and interrogate female rape victims for London Criminal Intelligence Agency 2. During WWI a. Women fill in fo men who are fighting b. Execute erveillance, have no arrest powers 3. 1918- Metro Police of London's Division of Women Police Patrols a.

wayward girls b. sex of enders c. prostitution d. white slave traffic e.

female prisoners f. juvenile cases 4. Duties during WWII a. law enforcement b. escorting enemy aliens c.

detention centers on Isle of Man, 1946 d. special missions in British-occupied Germany to establish German policewomen sections 5. Full integration with close of Metropolitan Womens force in 1963 A. West Germany 1. Worlds first city to employ officially titled policewoman a.

Stuttgart, Germany, 1903 2. Employed since then, but not in Hitlers era 3. Reinstituted after WWII for democratization and to fill personnal l needs 4. Not in formal uniforms 5. Preventive work with women and juveniles B. Poland 1.

1925- Women police force started a. Implemented after Poland becomes free for first time since 1795 2. Combat prostitution 3. Help women and children cooperate with social organizations 4. During WWII a.

fought and died alongside males for their country C. France 1. 1925-response to questionnaires regarding female element of policework a. Women are not on French police forces because women should be homemakers and mothers and should not be employed where there is physical danger 2. 1969- 59 policewomen with baccalaureate degrees a.

hold title of social assistant b. virtually no everday police work D. Japan 1. 1946-1963 Female officers appointed in Tokyo's Metropolitan Police Department 2. 1947- Mandate that women should be fully integrated by 1953 a. 1200 policewomen working at the time 3.

Same status and credentials as men today III. History of Policewomen in the U. S. A. Responsible for preventive policework instead of investigative B. 1915-International Association of Policewomen organized C.

WWI 1. Keep prostitutes away from military camps 2. Return runaway women to homes 3. Supervise commercial amusements near military camps D. 1922- International Association of Chiefs of Police 1.

Pass resolution that women are essential to modern departments E. WWII 1. Supplemented manpower needs 2. Women Auxiliary Police a. Substitute for men b. Fulfill same duties as male officers c.

Use terminated after war F. 1970 s- emergence in federal agencies G. State police presence 1. Wear civilian clothes 2.

No general patrol 3. Mostly sex offense cases IV. Obstacles which have been overcome A. Attitudes about law enforcement as suppressive v. preventive B. Stereotypes of policewomen as bull dykes C.

Unequal requirements 1. Higher educational requirements 2. Smaller physical requirements 3. Different entrance exams 4. Separate training procedures a. No firearms or self-defense training 5.

Different salaries 6. Few promotional opportunities D. Administrative issues 1. femininity / attractiveness of uniform v. function 2. cute stewardess hats and booties issued at first a.

resented by women b. departments this theyre helping retain femininity 3. Absenteeism and turnover concerns a. marriage bar lifted after WWII b.

average loss of work equal between men and women 4. Injury rate is equal as well 5. 1979- Employer must offer health benefits to cover pregnancy a. usually patrol up to 7 th or 8 th month, then given light duty assignment in station 6.

Many issues have been remedied, some are still problem areas 356.