Chapter 1 Communication- the process of understanding and sharing meaning. Process- an activity, exchange, or set of behaviors that occur over time. Understanding- perceiving, interpreting, and comprehending the meaning of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of others. Sharing- an interaction between people in order to exchange meaning.
Meaning- the shared understanding of the message constructed in the minds of the communicators. Source- a message initiator Receiver- a message target Message- The verbal or nonverbal form of the idea, thought, or feeling that one person (the source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of people (the receivers) Channel- the means by which a message moves from the source to the receiver of the message. Feedback- the receivers verbal and nonverbal response to the source's message. Code- a systematic arrangement of symbols used to create meanings in the mind of another person or persons.
Syntax- the rules of the arrangement in language. Grammar- the rules of function in language. Verbal codes- symbols and their grammatical arrangement, such as languages. Nonverbal codes- All symbols that are not words, including bodily movements use of space and time, clothing and ad ornaments, and sounds other than words.
Encoding- converting an idea or thought into a code. Decoding- assigning meaning to the idea or thought in a code. Noise- any interference in the encoding and decoding processes that reduces message clarity. Action Model- a depiction of communication as one person sending a message and another person or group of persons receiving it.
Interaction Model- A depiction of communication as one person sending a message and a second person receiving the message and then responding with a return message. Transaction Model- a depiction of communication as communicators simultaneously sending and receiving messages. Constructivist Model- a theory of communication which posits that receivers create their own reality in their minds. Context- a set of circumstances or a situation. Intra personal Communication- the process of understanding and sharing meaning within itself. Dyadic Communication- two person communication.
Small-group Communication- the interaction of a small group of people to achieve an interdependent goal. Public Communication- the process of generating meanings in a situation where a single source transmits a message to a number of receivers who give nonverbal and, sometimes, question-and-answer feedback. Mass Communication- communication mediated, via a transmission system, between a source and a large number of unseen receivers. Chapter 2 Figure- the focal point of a persons attention. Ground- the background against which a person's focused attention occurs. Closure- the tendency to fill in missing information in order to complete an otherwise incomplete figure or statement.
Proximity- the principle that objects which are physically close to each other will be perceived as a unit or a group. Interpretation- the process of assigning meaning to stimuli. Interpretive Perception- perception that involves a blend of internal states and external stimuli. Symbolic Interaction- the process in which the self develops through the messages and feedback received from others. Self-Actualization- according to Maslow, the fulfillment of one's potential as a person. Gender Constancy- the tendency to see oneself consistently as male or female.
Perception- the process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses.