1. Historical People. Chapter 2 i. John Rolfe- Settled in Virginia. Father of the Tobacco Industry. Married Pocahontas but she died just before returning to Virginia.
Died in 1622, during an Indian Uprising, but historians aren't sure how he died. ii. Walter Raleigh-sponsored a settlement on Roanoke Island. Half brother to Sir Humphrey and Sir John Gilbert. In 1585, he was made governor of Jersey. Raleigh arranged for the construction of 'The Ark Royal'.
Raleigh was framed as a member of a plot against the throne and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was executed on 1618 and he asked to see the axe and said 'This is a sharp Medicine, but it is a Physician for all Diseases.' iii. Powhatan-A local Indian Tribe that helped the English survive. Were settled in Virginia but were forced to move from the British to the North (Pennsylvania and New Jersey) iv.
Lord Baltimore- AKA Sir George Calvert. Was knighted by King James in 1617. Then he was commissioned as one of the principal Secretaries of State in 1619. Found Maryland in 1634 v. James Oglethorpe-Military leader when Spain attacked Georgia. Was elected to the committee investigating penal conditions in 1722.
On Feb. 12, 1733, he founded Savannah. vi. Handsome Lake-Iroquois Religious Leader. He taught family values, abstinence and practiced ceremonies and songs. vii.
Humphrey Gilbert- Humphrey Gilbert was the second son of Otho Gilbert and Katherine Champernowne. But his father died in 1547 and his mother re-married Walter Raleigh. He was knighted in 1570 by Lord Deputy, Sir Henry Sidney. He was elected to represent Plymouth in Parliament in 1571 viii. John Smith-When he was 20, he joined the Austrian Force to fight the Turks in the "Long War." While he was fighting in Hungary, he was promoted Captain. However, he was wounded in battle and was sold as a slave to the Turks, but managed to escape and settle in Jamestown.
In December 1607, he was ambushed by the Powhatan tribe but kept alive for his unusual instruments. He was held captive for four weeks before the release. ix. Oliver Cromwell-ruled as Lord Protector of England for almost a decade. b. Chapter 3 i.
John Calvin-Started Calvinism. Wrote a popular presentation of Christian Doctrine and Life. ii. Peter Stuyvesant-He was the son of a Calvinist minister. In 1645, he became director general of Dutch possessions in North America. iii.
John Winthrop-led "The Great Puritan Migration." First governor of Massachusetts. iv. Anne Hutchinson-was a prominent proponent of antinomian ism. She was banished from Boston for trying to evict Reverend Wilson from the Boston church.
In August 1643, the Mahicans raided her house and killed Anne and five of her youngest children. However, her daughter, Susanna survived and was taken captive v. William Laud- was an Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633 to 1645 vi. King Philip-Indian name was metacom or metacom et. Was executed as the settlers began to take control vii. Roger Williams-teacher at Salem Bay, taught a number of controversial principles viii.
Thomas Hooker-ix. William Bradford-became the governor of Massachusetts by believing that he had received the calling from God. x. Henry Hudson- In 1609, he sailed up the Hudson River for the Dutch East India Company, and claimed it for the Dutch. In order to settle this area, they created the xi. William Penn-He was a Quaker and a friend of King Charles II.
Pennsylvania was named after this man which was granted from King Charles II xii. Sir Edmund Andros- Edmund Andros grew to be the leader of the dominion, and was very repressive. He took away many of the rights that the colonials had gotten used to. c. Chapter 4 i. William Berkeley- The governor of Virginia during Bacon's Rebellion.
ii. Nathaniel Bacon- Organized a group of Died of Dysentery. 2. Definition a. Chapter 2 i. Royal Character- The English government was all gay and shit, he had to issue one of these for someone to be able to go to some new territory 2 establish a colony.
For example, James I issued a 'royal charter' for Jamestown. ii. Joint-stock company-An economic arrangement by which a number of investors pool their capital for investment. iii.
Primogeniture-The legal principle that the oldest son inherits all family property or land. iv. Indentured Servant-A poor person obligated to a fixed term of labor. v.
Proprietor- This means an owner of an estate, so a yeoman could be a proprietor, but it is usually used to refer to somebody with a huge estate. vi. Enclosure- By consolidating land parcels, the guys with the small parcels were driven out. Those that were kicked out either found jobs in the Industrial Revolution or, went and joined some of the new and fledging adventures into the New World. vii. House of Burgesses- This was the 1 st example of representative government in the Americas, and was formed in Virginia.
b. Chapter 3 i. The "elect"- In Calvinist doctrine, those who have been chosen by God for salvation. ii. Doctrine of a calling- In Protestantism, the belief that saved individuals have a religious obligation to engage in worldly work. iii.
Freeman-Only Puritan males were freeman. iv. Franchise- Synonymous with the vote, this was given to men at first (visible saints), but was later given to all guys. "visible saints"- In Calvinism, those who publicly proclaimed their experience of conversion and were expected to lead godly lives. vi. Covenant- Puritans believed that the government was a covenant among people vii.
Patroonship- The name given to the plots of land given 2 Dutch people in the New Netherlands, it showed the domination by the aristocrats. viii. Conversion-A religious turn to God, thought by Calvinists to involve and intense, identifiable personal experience. ix.
Antinomian ism-x. Predestination-The Calvinist doctrine that God has foreordained some people to be saved and some to be damned. Chapter 4 i. Head-right system-The right to acquire a certain amount of land granted to the person who finances the passage of a laborer. ii. Indentured Servitude- This is a process in which somebody would do a job for his master for a few years before receiving his freedom.
This was primarily used in the English colonies up until 1650. The white indentured servants were those that had enormous amounts of debts by not having money to pay for passage, and the black indentured servants were simply brought over from Africa. iii. Middle passage- The portion of slave ship's journey in which slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas. iv. Jeremiads-A sermon or prophecy of doom and calling for repentance.
3. Historical Description a. Chapter 2 i. Virginia Company- It was formed in 1606 by King James I. It was a joint-stock company.
The company had many powers such as appointing the City Council of Virginia and the governor. ii. Act of Tolerance-Established on September 21 1649. guaranteed toleration for all Christians iii. 1 st Anglo Powhatan War- De La Warr built up tensions with the Indians and started a war, using "Irish tactics." The Indians got desperate and decided to ask Pocahontas to marry John Rolfe in order to end the war.
iv. Iroquois Confederacy- According to their legend, Hiawatha established this in the late 1500 s. Originally with 5 tribes, it became 6 when the Tuscaroras got kicked out by N. C. in 1711. They were originally able to fend off the Europeans.
v. 2 nd Anglo-Powhatan War-known as the Good Friday Massacre. It was started by a surprise attack from Opechancanough. vi. Barbados Slave Code-denied many rights to the slaves and gave the masters full control over them vii. Restoration- Charles II returned from France after Oliver Cromwell died.
b. Chapter 3 i. Protestant Reformation- This was begun in 1517 when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg church. ii. Navigation Laws iii. Bible Commonwealth- This was the name given to the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of their virtual combining of church and state.
iv. Glorious Revolution- In England, James II was kicked out and William and Mary were brought in. This ended the royal conservatism. But the English presence remained in the form of judges, etc. v.
Pilgrims-They were the famous of all separatists. Their name was derived from Pilgrimage vi. Quakers- Their official name was Religious Society of Friends. They were named 'quaked' when they went with religious fervor. They were persecuted almost everywhere. vii.
Great Puritan Migration- This was a direct result of the policies of Charles I. 65, 000 Puritans (mostly non-conformists) mainly went to the Caribbean, some went to New England, but very few went to the Chesapeake area. viii. Mayflower-The ship that was used to transport pilgrims from England to the New World. The ship carried 102 people and only one died on the way.
ix. Protestant Ethic- This was supposedly what governed the lives of the Puritans, in which they were suppressed. Calvinism xi. Puritans- This name was given to the Calvinists in England xii. General Court- Like the House of Burgesses in Virginia, this was the representative body that Massachusetts elected. However, only freemen could vote xiii.
Mayflower Compact- Before getting off, everybody signed this document, which said that decisions would be made by direct voting of the males This document was necessary because less than half of the guy were Puritans. xiv. Separatists-They were the people who decided to leave England because of their disbelief in Catholicism xv. Fundamental Orders- This was basically the constitution that Hooker and his other colonists drafted up. It the 1 st of its kind, later adopted by Connecticut itself to serve as the actual state constitution. xvi.
Massachusetts Bay Company xvii. Dominion of New England-Created by the royal crown after Charles II gained power. However, the British took away many rights and freedom and stated that it was for the protection of the people. xviii. Dutch West India Company- In 1623, they found the New Netherlands. The Dutch were enjoying quite some power at this time because of their economic powers.
xix. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Chapter 4 i. Bacon's Rebellion: Took place in Virginia's western frontier during the 1670 s. The governor planned to relieve the Indians.
However, Nathaniel Bacon was against the idea of protecting them. ii. Half-Way Covenant- Since people weren't being religious enough and the clergy was giving up, they switched to this strategy, in which it gave partial rights to those not converted. iii.
Leisler's Rebellion-Very similar to Bacon's Rebellion, only, that it took place in New York. However, many fighters were merchants instead of freeman.