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Sample essay topic, essay writing: The Boeing Company Marketing Policy - 5049 words
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.. ernment as mentioned in the political factor of the PEST analysisPricing strategy in the Boeing-Airbus duopoly Strategic objectives for Boeing pricing policy First key point for the Boeing pricing strategy is linked to an environmental analysis. Saving money is vital for success as well as responsiveness to customer needs. Boeing is striving hard to achieve economies of scale from its procurement process to designing and manufacturing. One of its core missions is to leverage economies of scale opportunities so.
This had been achieved through horizontal integration. Indeed made alliances with other aircraft to create the EXOSTAR platform, an online business to business trading platform for procurement. Moreover, the American aircraft manufacturer made strategic mergers and acquisitions such as McDonnell Douglas in 1997, the space and defence business of Rockwell Intl., and Hughes Space & Communications, among others. Second key point remains Boeing strategy which is to focus on the point to point route travels increase. Boeing made the all new 787 product development to extend its jet portfolio to serve that new point to point travel segment market. The duopoly and its impact on Boeing pricing policyOne of the most important key points about the pricing strategy is linked to the duopoly commercial airplane structure
The duopoly increasingly means a likelihood of imperfect competition where the two firm Boeing and Airbus can affect the prices of their products. Actually, the two firms are far from being to set their own prices . The buyers, who have the choice only between these two manufacturers, have a considerable bargaining power. Power of buyersAirlines are becoming more "price sensitive". Indeed, major airlines are striving hard to cut their operating cost to survive in a turbulent environment still affected by the 9/11 turmoil.
Their profits are lower and only the low fare/no frills airlines remain profitable. Because of the fact that an average commercial airline such as the well known 737-700 model can cost anywhere between $50.5 - 59.0 million, airlines are now more concerned about cost structure and quite sensitive to discount or financial support through leasing services. All these parameters have affected Boeing pricing policy. How price is fixed Experience curve effectBoeing benefits from learning/experience curve effect that can enable the company to benefit from economies of scale. Large-Scale System Integration as a core competency to provide economies of scale. Perceived value system Boeing pays attention to the perception of their value creation towards customers by focusing on services and reliability: see matrix price/quality below.
The goal for Boeing is to be perceived as either High quality Medium Price: good value for money. High Medium LowHigh Luxury strategy Good value for money BargainMedium Bad value for money Average Good value for moneyLowRip-off Bad value for money Economy LeasingBoeing Capital Solutions offer leasing services to airlines. Leasing is a very common practice for Boeing to build long term relationships with its customers. Airlines can not afford a 59.0 million jet if considering the turbulent environment in which they operate. Leasing has a strategic importance so. Discount policy Airlines are quite sensitive to discount as previously described above.
Discount is an important matter for Boeing pricing policy to retain established customers and attract new ones. Like other retailers and manufacturers, Boeing periodically cuts its prices to make a sale. RYANAIR, a low cost Irish carrier disclosed the size of Boeing discount. It paid $ 51 million each for the 70 737-800s it ordered from Boeing earlier this year. This represented a discount of about 20 percent off the posted list price ($61 million to $68 million).Analysis of Major CustomersWe will now take a brief look at some of Boeing's major customers. Boeing's sales are almost entirely B2B driven, apart from certain B2C operations such as the companies Connexion by Boeing offering and also some of the company's technological offerings. However for the purpose of this report and the course at hand the proceeding analysis will only be concentrated on the companies B2B operations.
Boeing's B2B customers for its commercial airplanes unit are its corporate clients. Corporate Clients:Boeing's most valuable customer is the many airlines worldwide that purchase from the company. It's difficult to truly calculate how many airlines have purchased Boeing aircrafts since its foundation in 1916; however we can look at some of the company's most recent valuable customers. Last year alone the company sold to over 145 countries and estimates that its aircraft now account for over three quarters of the world's fleet with nearly 12,000 jetliners in service . The following diagram depicts certain products and services and their respective order and delivery amounts.
All the information given below was collected from the Boeing website. Selected Orders and Deliveries since Boeing's creation:Model Number Orders Deliveries747-400 1385 1353777 Family 673 499767 Family 950 925757Family 1049 1047737 Family 5530 4754717 Family 169 137787 67 0Total 9823 8715In fiscal 2004 Boeing sales in its commercial airplanes business unit were approximately $21 billion. One can postulate that much of this revenue was made up of purchases from airline companies. Much of Boeing's fleet is more accustomed to completing short range travel in a quick timeframe with a medium amount of passengers whereas the Airbus strategy appears to be more directed at long distance travel with larger passenger numbers this is evident by looking at the company's completion of its new A380 model. Since Boeing's airplanes are more suited for the predominately favoured low-cost no frill airlines these are the company's main commercial airplane customers. Companies like RyanAir and Easyjet and Southwest Airlines all appear to use a considerable amount of Boeing's products, mainly the 737 model which is quite efficient at reducing travel times and also at reducing the costs of crude oil; two essentials for operating a low-cost airline.
However it is not just these low-cost airlines that use Boeing products, all of the following airlines have recently purchased extra airplanes from the company; Japan Airlines, Air Europa, Continental Airlines, KLM, Etihad Airways, Singapore Airlines, China Airlines, Turkmenistan Airlines and the list continues. In fact there are very few worldwide airlines that don't avail of any of the companies' products or services. Boeing has become the Microsoft of the aviation industry; its existence is evident everywhere where planes are used. Another corporate client worth mentioning is governments. Governments such as the U.S, however it is not just the U.S government that is providing Boeing with its yearly earnings, as aforementioned other governments are also contributing to the companies staggering revenues, mainly allies of the U.S. Boeing sells to these governments on a much smaller basis but they are nonetheless worth mentioning.
Boeing not only sells military related equipment to governments worldwide, it also sells its commercial airplanes to state run airlines. Earlier this year following a tender put forward by the Indian government Boeing completed a sale with the state-run Air-India company for five 777-200LR, 10 777-300ER, and 20 787-8 airplanes, with options to buy three additional 777-200LR Worldliners, five 777-300ERs, and seven 787-8 Dreamliners at a later date. The entire purchase agreement could allow Boeing to realize anywhere up to a further US$ 7 billion for the company's commercial airplanes business unit. Following the decision by Air India to purchase from Boeing, its main competitor Airbus immediately began to cry foul play. Airbus believes the deal was influenced by politics as India hopes it will lead to high-technology sales from other US firms in the future and also will aid the country in winning US support on New Delhi's bid for a seat on the UN Security Council. Politics aside Airbus has asked the Indian government to order a new tender and the vice president of Airbus Nigel Harwood was quoted as saying 'We are not disappointed, but astonished. We were not given fair and equal treatment.' Airbus should however be more concerned about its home market in Europe and France where it appears to be losing many of its hitherto trustworthy customers.
Even Air France recently ordered further aircrafts from Boeing. Air France ordered four additional Boeing 777-300ERs these airplanes are valued at $920 million at list prices. However this is not entirely surprising when one considers that over thirty five per cent of Boeing's produce is made in the European Union. Description of Products and ServicesBoeing's products and services are amongst some of the most expensive in the world. An average commercial airplane such as the well known 737-700 model can cost anywhere between $50.5 - 59.0 million.
The company has an uncountable array of products and services that range from the typical 747 to the more imaginable Boeing Business Jet (BBJ). The company's products and services are produced, marketed and sold in an almost pure oligopoly environment.We will now take a more detailed look at Boeing's Commercial Airplanes unit and briefly analyze the companies Capital Corporation unit as it has a vital role in Boeing's business of today. Appendix 1.2 below provides a diagrammatic illustration of the company's individual business units.Commercial AirplanesOne of Boeing's main units is its Commercial Airplanes unit. So far this year this unit has had a strong operating performance and has delivered seventy airplanes to the market. Although this unit has underperformed compared to its first quarter results for the previous year the rest of the year is expected to be more positive with a dramatic rise in revenues expected. For the first quarter in 2004 this unit boasted revenues of $5.3 billion however for 2005 this unit has raised only $5.1 billion in revenues for the company, a decline in revenues of ~3.8%. The most enlightening information for the company is that despite the decrease in revenues the earnings from its Commercial Airplane operations rose by eleven per cent to $389 million.
The drop in sales was due to fewer deliveries in the first quarter of this year compared to last. Operating margins increased from 6.6% to 7.7% in the company's first quarter results for 2004 and 2005 respectively, probably due to Boeing's limited competition and its strong operational advantage. In total the unit has managed to capture sixty-three gross orders so far this year and is expected to perform exceptionally well for the rest of the year with the introduction of its latest model the 777-200LR which will be forthwith the company's longest range commercial airplane. The 777-200LR has already undertaken its maiden flight successfully. The company's most predominately desired commercial airline is its 787 model which is continuing to make excellent progress whilst displaying key technological superiority. As of April 2005 the company has announced that so far to date it has taken 237 orders and commitments for its reputable 787 model from over nineteen airlines. In the first quarter of 2005 alone the company has received a further sixty two orders and commitments for the luxurious 787.Boeing has a total of sixteen commercial airplanes that are divided into five families. Appendix 1.6 shows a complete list of these families and their respective products.
As can be seen the cheapest airline is the 717-200 which can cost anywhere in between $38.0 - 42.0 million, alternatively the most expensive commercial airplane on offer at present is the 777-300 ER which costs between $218.0 - 245.5 million. Indeed with such enormous sales prices one can truly begin to realize the true extent of operating in the airline industry. The 717-200 will however cease production in the near future with Boeing Commercial Airplanes President and Chief Executive Officer Alan Mulally conceding that "the 717 brings tremendous value to the airlines that operate it. Unfortunately, the overall market for the airplane does not support continuing 717 productions beyond delivering on our current commitments." The 717-200 had an overall passenger capacity of 106 seating places whereas the new 787-9 Dreamliner will boast an overall capacity of 259 passengers in a three-class configuration. Although incomparable to Airbus's new A380 in size the 787-9 will bring other benefits to potential clients as it uses twenty percent less fuel than any other airplane of its size in the market. This belief was reinforced by Hans Weber, the US-based president of a successful management and consulting agency named Tecop International.
Weber indicated that 'With the 787, the cost level is lower than any airplane. As soon as you fly a 787 you spend less money.' However it's the 747 family that are Boeing's largest capacity airplanes, offering seating capacities of between 416-524 persons. One of Boeing's jewels is its 737-800 model or as it is frequently referred to the 737NG which is often requested by many of today's successful low cost airlines. The 737NG is ideal for low cost airlines as it can carry up to 189 passengers rapidly across short distances from point to point routes. Earlier this year one of Europe's leading low-cost airlines RyanAir gave a commitment to Boeing for the purchase of seventy 737NG aircrafts.
Boeing announced that the deal was worth US$4.6 billion at list prices, plus there were options for up to 70 more airplanes . Another product worth mentioning is the Boeing Business Jet (BBJ); which was developed by the Boeing commercial airplane unit in 1996. So far to date this majestic airplane has been bought ninety seven times and BBJ President Steven Hill is confident that it will reach sales of one hundred by the end of the fiscal year, especially since in the last six months alone the company has won another six orders. Hill announced that 'the interest and orders for the BBJ continues to grow. We're confident that the record sales pace will continue and that we will achieve 100 orders before the end of this year.' The BBJ is essentially an airplane constructed solely for the purpose of dignitaries and others of great importance. The Geneva News Publishing Company commented that 'Without a doubt, no other long-range business jet can be configured in so many uses ..' and they were not far from the truth, the BBJ boasts extra space, unsurpassed comfort, an unmatched array of onboard utilities to allow one to be productive whilst living a busy and hectic lifestyle which includes an executive conference area. The plane allows one to travel from over long distances in a relaxed environment. Boeing Capital Corporation (BCC) - A related serviceAlthough this report is mostly based on Boeing's commercial airplanes unit we feel that another of Boeing's business unit's should also be included as it is a relatable service.
This other unit is the Boeing capital corporation. Boeing's capital corporation's business unit is a subsidiary of Boeing. It provides asset-backed lending and leasing services to some of the company's major clients, however its main function is to support the companies other business units with adequate financing for the extensive costs attached to selling and delivering Boeing products. The main services that are provided are asset-based lending, operating leases, finance leases, leveraged leasing, sale/leasebacks, freighter conversion finance, long- and short-term financing, secured loans - senior and subordinated and asset value guarantees. So far this year the unit has underperformed compared to its first quarter results in 2004.
In the first quarter of fiscal 2004 the company had revenues of $251 million for its capital corporation unit, however for the first quarter of this year this figure has dropped to $237 million, therefore the units revenue has dropped by a total of six per cent. The unit's pre-tax income fluctuated more adversely with a drop of around forty per cent; total income fell from $73 million to $44 million. This decrease in income can be accounted for through the unit's gains on asset sales in 2004. The unit has a total of 170 employees spread out in seven different locations. BCC is aiding the company in lowering its yearly risks and in contributing to the company's overall portfolio. Recent years have seen an increase in the demand for aircraft financing and consequently lease rates are on the rise. For the first quarter of 2005 the BCC paid a $55 million dividend to Boeing thus allowing Boeing to realize $760 million in cash over the past fifteen months. BCC expects to have total sales of ~$.9 billion by the end of the year. Importance of asset-backed lending and leasing in today's marketToday the airline industry is very turbulent and many of today's modern airlines apart from a couple of exceptions are bankrupt.
The exceptions include companies like RyanAir who announced net profits for its year end of EUR268.9 million. Bankruptcy has now become a part of doing business for many airlines. The Air Transport Association estimates there have been 'well over' 100 filings of bankruptcy since de-regulation occurred in 1978 . Therefore these airline companies cannot remotely afford to fully purchase Boeing's products. Such was the case in March 2003 when Hawaiian Airlines had to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. The BCC then had to reach an agreement with the airline over the restructuring of its long term leases for 11 Boeing 717-200s and three Boeing 767-300ERs and also on the amount of Boeing's claim resulting from the bankruptcy.
For airline companies to survive, they now have to find other means of acquiring aircraft. Boeing Capital Corporation offers these airline operators financial alternatives and advice and offers them financing to buy and/or lease commercial jet airplanes. The Aircraft Financial Services group specializes in arranging creative finance and lease structures; administration of Boeing financing commitments and guarantees; and offers a broad range of financing options and solutions. The advantage the unit has over other finance companies is that it has significantly more knowledge in pricing, credit, and legal and tax expertise when dealing with aircrafts. The life cycle of Boeing's commercial airplanesThe life cycle of Boeing's airplanes is favourable for the company.
Boeing's aircraft are probably at there growth stage since the world population is constantly increasing and there appears for the moment an ever increasing market for airplanes. Since there is currently no new mode of transport and the airplane revolution has not yet been surpassed Boeing can expect to continue selling its aircraft. Boeing and Airbus operate as a Duopoly and as such Boeing's product life cycles depend almost solely on continuing to improve its offerings relative to its main competitor. One can postulate that the airplane industry will not reach saturation for many years especially since there are not many effective alternatives for transatlantic travel and other long distance travelling and also since there are now new economies growing significantly rapidly, such as China. Boeing expects that the demand for its commercial aircraft in China will increase dramatically as the countries growth continues to produce remarkable growth figures.
Boeing's Communication PolicyBoeing's communication policy relies heavily on electronic communication; it also uses specialized presses and often uses signs, moving communication and gadgets for its communication policy. We feel Boeing utilises its advertising techniques as follows, they are in rank order of importance. Most Important1: Electronic Communication2: Institutional Communication3: Mass Media4: Moving Communication5: Signs6: Gadgets7: Paper CommunicationLess ImportantElectronic CommunicationIn speaking about electronic communication we refer to Boeing's use of its intranet and extranet and most importantly its website. Boeing's uses its intranet to communicate with its employees. With its intranet Boeing is able to communicate its beliefs internally to all who are an integral part of the company.
This advertisement is posted on Boeing's intranet yearly albeit a different version is used each year. Appendix 1.3 is a typical advertisement that is aimed internally within the company. As can be seen the message is simple, the company is trying to influence its employees to subscribe to payroll reductions that will be put towards the employees community fund to help those in need within their respective communities.Apart from reaching its employees the company also uses electronic communication to promulgate. If one connects to the Boeing website there will be numerous news headlines which allow the company to express its opinions with the general public, the website is also used to advertise to the company's customers. The website contains a comprehensive section for company news which allows one to search for multiple articles of interest. The internet is not a very widely used advertisement technique for the company however it does support the company's other advertising this is mainly done by providing links to the company website for more information at the bottom of its advertisements.
On the company website there are many links to other Boeing web pages that are almost entirely business to business targeted pages. An example of these pages would be the Boeing capital corporation webpage. The final electronic tool the company uses to communicate with is it's extranet. Boeing uses the extranet that it has with its suppliers to communicate directly with them. Boeing's extranet is used extensively within the company for targeting new potential suppliers. Institutional CommunicationThe second most used communication technique by Boeing is institutional communication.
Through this type of advertising Boeing is able to promote its ideas and political opinions. As can be seen in the advertisement on appendix 1.4 the company is trying to inform that it is an honoured partner of the National Symphony Orchestra and that it believes in music connecting and inspiring. This particular advertisement is quite old and was used in May of 2002 to state the companies support for musicians who were to undertake a 15 city European tour. Earlier this year in February the company was once again announcing their support for celebrating music with an advertisement called "A single note can change the world."Whichever type of opinion or belief the company is trying to promote it uses institutional advertising.In fact institutional advertising is used very frequently by Boeing. Another effective such example is the advertisement in appendix 1.5 this advertisement was launched in June of 2002. The advertisement reads "Together we soar".
This advertisement was launched to promote the companies ideas on working with small, minority and women owned businesses. It says "we never underestimate the value of a good thought" and invites the reader to find out more by once again visiting the Boeing website. This advertisement was evidently aimed at showing that the company enjoys working together with everyone.From these advertisements we can indeed note that Institutional Advertising plays a pivotal role in Boeing's communication policyMass MediaWe believe that Boeing's use of the mass media is more limited to its use of other communicational methods. For Boeing trying to sell multimillion dollar airplanes to airline companies it would make little sense to advertise over the airwaves as would be the popular choice with most pure Business to Consumer companies. Whether it's by Radio or television the company would not effectively reach its target market. We also believe that the company would have an identical problem if it tried to use cinemas or the general press to advertise. However we believe that one of the company's most suitable advertising techniques lies within this communication segment.
That technique is of course the use of specialized press, press such as Industry Week. We feel that for Boeing the use of specialized press is advantageous as the readers will more than likely be involved in the industry or at least have an interest in the industry. Through specialized press the company can advertise more in-depth as the readers will be educated in the industry. Through specialized press the company can even advertise technical specifications of some of its commercial airplanes to its corporate clients. The main advantage of using certain specialized press for Boeing is the ability to directly reach the company's target audience. The advertisement shown in appendix 1.6 was used by the company for specialized press and tries to illustrate to the company's target market that Boeing aircrafts fly faster and longer distances than its industry competitors, essentially implying that the company's aircraft are better than those of Airbus.
Moving CommunicationWe feel that the fourth most important method of communication for Boeing is moving communication. Before delivering completed aircrafts to its corporate clients Boeing marks its aircraft with the company logo and the aircraft model number. This in itself is advertising. When Boeing planes are either airborne or preparing for takeoff the planes will be a moving advertisement. Since Boeing's products are built for the sole purpose of becoming airborne this type of communication is always used.SignsOnce more the company's logo can be used as an advertising technique.
As aforementioned the company prints its logo on all of its aircraft and when these aircraft are stationary in an airport or elsewhere these planes will be advertising for the company. This type of advertisement like the above is however limited as it doesn't convey a message, it simply reminds people of the company and its logo. The company also uses signs on all of its premises worldwide and the company name is now a prominent feature of the western edge of Chicago city's skyline, its backlit Boeing logo on top is visible for miles at night. GadgetsOne of the less useful methods of communication for Boeing is through gadgets. We feel that the company can use gadgets such as pens, model airplanes, pens, hats and t-shirts as gifts rather than as an advertising technique.
Paper We feel that the least important communication method for the company to use in marketing to its corporate clients is through paper advertising. Paper advertising does not seem like a viable option as brochures and catalogues for Boeing products are not distributed by the company randomly and are only offered to existing customers. Boeing printed packaging also seems like a less useful advertising technique for the company than it would be for example with a stationary company. Throughout the company special Boeing headed paper is used with the company logo printed on the left hand side of each page however it does not appear to be used so much for advertising. Public Relations Internal target As previously described in the communication policy part, Boeing uses its intranet to communicate with its employees. Employees are the first key internal target for Boeing's Public Relations. Moreover, if one connects to Boeing's web site, information about employment such as vacations or retiree is visible from the general public .
No information about open days or special social events could have been found. Yet, the employment section on Boeing's website contains a recreation page. Indeed, Boeing created Recreation Clubs, located within The Boeing Company. These Boeing's clubs that are available for membership to current employees, retirees, vendors, contract labourers, government employees assigned full time to The Boeing Company, spouses and families of The Boeing Company. Boeing put a great emphasis on communicating with its employees.
Boeing knows the importance to maintain strong close relationships with them. The second key internal target for Boeing is its suppliers. As previously describe in the supply chain management part, Boeing tries to make efforts to build closer, long term relationships with its suppliers. Boeing's supplier web interface is a key tool to maintain close relationship by communicating regularly information about Boeing's commitment with Ethics and quality among others. But, the most relevant example is about Boeing's annual "Salute to suppliers" .
Boeing uses this award to suppliers as a tool to maintain close relationships and to show Boeing's commitment with small business. Thus, Boeing honoured in 2004 thirteen companies from three countries with premier supplier awards for their commitment to excellence and customer satisfaction in 2003. Among the thirteen recipients, three were international businesses and seven were small businesses. Among the small businesses, three are women owned or minority-owned companies. Then, in the ranking of internal target for Boeing's Public Relations come Journalists visiting the company. Indeed, the American aircraft regularly grant interviews with its senior managers to specialized press.
Finally, job applicants are the last but not the least important internal target. Boeing uses mainly its web site to communicate with job applicants. As Boeing needs to retain specialized staff to perform its operations, the company has established a marketing approach to convince job applicants about the benefits for their career to work for Boeing . This electronic approach is completed by career fairs regularly organized in the United States. External target First in ranking the external ranking for Boeing's Public Relations is Politicians.
At the origins of many trade disputes between and its head to head competitor Airbus is Boeing lobbying on the US government. And vive versa, Boeing is accusing Airbus from receiving unfair subsidies. As Airbus succeeded in gaining market share against Boeing, the American aircraft manufacturer alleged that Airbus benefited from unfair subsidies. Therefore, Boeing pressured US trade authorities to counteract the European financial support. As a result, the United States and European Community concluded an agreement on trade in commercial airplanes in 1992 that limited government subsides .
This agreement, however, has come under new strain as Airbus introduces the A380 wide body jet. Boeing is often involved in lobbying the White House to win support for a deal . As a consequence, local authorities abandon to launch competitive tender and the contract is attributed to Boeing. Finally, second key external target remains the general public. If one connects to Boeing's web site, there are different sections dedicated to the general public.
The most interesting are about Ethics and Education Relations. For example, Boeing is committed with education institutions and programs. Boeing's Education Relations covers a wide range of activities as well as financial support . These techniques are essential for Boeing to gain a social responsible image form the general public. Finally, Boeing also organizes exhibits open to the general public. For example, an exhibit opens to the general public recently in St Louis, USA. The exhibit consists with a unique collection of aviation history .Distribution policyDirect salesFor most product and situations, it is generally more efficient for a manufacturer to go through a distributor rather than selling directly to the customer.
However, it is different with Boeing case, most airline are perfectly happy only being able to buy aircraft and accessories from Boeing and would prefer not to go through a retailer- particularly since the planes are often highly customized. Supply chain managementBelow is the Boeing global inventory network policy:o Boeing will be responsible for the purchasing, inventory management and logistics for an airline's expendable airframe parts. o All airframe parts will be 'forward deployed' by Boeing at or near the airline's point of use. Depending on the part, forward deployment may be to a Boeing regional distribution centre or to the airline's facility. o Boeing and other suppliers will own the airframe parts that are forward deployed until they actually are used. An airline will only pay for parts as it uses them, significantly reducing the airline's inventory holding costs.o A supply-chain management system will serve as the 'command centre' for the network, monitoring.
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