BREAST CANCER) Anatomy of the breast The breast is a gland designed to make milk. II) What is breast cancer? Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells. These abnormal growths are called tumors. Not all tumors are cancerous. Non-cancerous tumors - benign Cancerous tumors - malignant If not treated the cancer may spread to other parts of the body.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second leading cause of cancer death next to lung cancer. The incidence of breast cancer is very low in women in their twenties, plateaus at 45 and the increase dramatically after fifty. Fifty percent of breast cancer is diagnosed in women over sixty-five. III) Risk factors Early onset of menses / menstrual cycle prior to age 12 Menopause Diets high in saturated fats Family history Late or no pregnancies Moderate alcohol intake Smoking History of prior breast cancer Estrogen replacement therapy Therapeutic radiation to chest wall Gene mutations Moderate obesity Female Every woman is at some risk for breast cancer (does not necessarily mean that just because it does not run in your family that you will not develop breast cancer - According to the National Breast Cancer Foundation 85% of women with breast cancer have a negative family history IV) Symptoms/Early signs A lump in or near your breast A change in the size or shape of your breast Veins on the surface become more prominent on one breast Discharge from the nipple other than breast milk Breast tenderness Ridges or depression / pitting of the breast A change in the way the breast feels The earlier breast cancer is found and diagnosed, the better your chances of beating it. V) Breast cancer types Ductal Carcinoma in-situ Infiltrating Ductal - most common type Medullary Carcinoma Infiltrating Locular Tubular Carcinoma Mutinous Carcinoma Inflammatory Breast Cancer VI) Screening and testing Brest self exam Breast physical exam - help to find lumps that women may miss with their own self-exams. Mammogram - include 2 views of both breasts detect calcification's, cysts and fibro adenomas Ultrasound - sends high frequency sound waves through the breast and converts them to images - complements other testing MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging - uses magnetic fields, no radiation to create images of the body - Not used for general screening CAT - Computer Axial Tomography - x-ray technique in two-dimensional slices or cross-sections.
Not for routine evaluations. PET Scans - Positron Emission Tomography - patient is injected with a small amount of radioactive material. Biopsy - a small operation that removes tissue from an area of concern from the body to get cells for microscope analysis. Chest X-Ray - performed in those who have or ay have breast cancer to evaluate the possibility that cancer may have spread to the lungs. Bone Scan - to determine whether cancer has spread to any part of the bone system. Blood Tests - there are several protein markers in the blood related to breast cancer.
VII) Stages of breast cancer Breast cancer grows in stages with each stage being a more advanced form of the disease. The stages range from 0 to IV depending on which parts of the breast are affected. Stage 0 - cancer is in the lining of a lobule or duct but not has spread elsewhere. Stage I - Cancer has spread from the lobules or ducts to nearby breast tissue. Stage II - fits the criteria of stage I but the tumor size is larger. Stage III - divided into 2 categories Stage IIIA - invasive breast cancer Stage IIIB - invasive breast cancer Stage IV - the cancer has spread to other organs in the body.
Recurrent cancer - the disease has come back in spite of initial treatment VIII) Treatment Treatment options depend on a number of factors: age, menopausal status, general health, size and location of tumor, stage of the cancer, results of lab tests, size of breast Surgery - today's surgery is precise, targeted and aims to preserve as much of the healthy breast and surrounding areas as possible. - breast conserving surgery (lumpectomy) - mastectomy Radiation Therapy - highly targeted, highly effective way to destroy cancer cells that may linger after surgery. Chemotherapy - help to get rid of any cancer cells that may have spread from where the cancer started to another part of the body. Hormonal Therapy - drugs used to block the effects of hormones. Herceptin - immune treatment for breast cancer. There are many claims about alternative therapies that can help fight breast cancer but there is little research to support many of these claims.
IX) Prognosis Survival rates are based mainly on the stage of the cancer. Other factors may include the type of cancer and age of patient. Five-Year Survival Rate by Stage Stage 0 100% Stage I 98% Stage II 88% Stage IIIA 56% Stage IIIB 49% Stage IV 16%X) Male Breast Cancer - for every 100 women with breast cancer, 1 male will develop the disease. - male breast cancers account for approximately 1% all breast cancer cases. XI) Risk factors While most risk factors between men and women there are several differences Advanced age Liver disease Klinefelter's Syndrome XII) Symptoms/Early signs - symptoms of make breast cancer include many of the same symptoms that women experience XII) Breast cancer types - relatively the same as in females XIII) Screening and testing - relatively the same as in females XIV) Stages of breast cancer - relatively the same as in females VIII) Treatment - relatively the same as in female sIX) Prognosis - relatively the same as in females Facts Late shift work might increase cancer risk - Two studies examined how working at night can affect the onset of breast cancer. Doctors speculate being exposed to light during nighttime hours cuts the brains production of the sleep-regulating chemical melatonin.
A decrease in melatonin can cause an increase in the body's production of estrogen, which has been linked to breast cancer. Every two minutes a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer This year more than 200, 000 new cases of breast cancer are expected in the United States One woman in eight who lives to age 85 will develop breast cancer during her lifetime 1600 men will die of breast cancer this year 70% of all breast cancers are found through breast self-exams Eight out of ten breast lumps are not cancerous Myths Breast Cancer only affects older women. NO - breast cancer does increase as we get older, but can occur at any age If you have a risk factor for breast cancer, you are likely to get the disease. NO - breast cancer is not a certainty If breast cancer does not run in your family, you will not get it.
NO - every woman has some risk of breast cancer, 85% of women who get breast cancer has no known family history Only your mother's family history of breast cancer can affect your risk. NO - a history in your mother or father's family will influence equally Using antiperspirants causes breast cancer. NO - there is no evidence that influences breast cancer risk Birth control pills cause breast cancer. NO - most birth control pills contain a low dose of estrogens and progesterone (they however can provide protection against ovarian cancer) Breast cancer diagnosis is an automatic death sentence NO - 96% of women diagnosed with breast cancer live at least 5 years, more than 70% will survive 10 years.