Local Government has no Role to Play in Tourist Development The local Government is one of the keys to tourism development, a complete contradiction to that of the essay statement, which I believe really has no ground to stand on. In this essay I will illustrate this point by showing the roles with which local government plays within the community, and the importance it has to creating a successfully developed tourism product that maximis es the benefits for not only the residences of the community but the tourist himself. Over the past forty years, trends in the tourism industry illustrate there has been evident growth on both a regional and global perspective. Because of this increase and growth of the industry it has ultimately brought large benefits to communities, providing great opportunity, economic development, employment and social benefits. Due to this benefit it is imperative that communities capitalist on these opportunities. One of the major authorities which provides the key roles to this success is that of local governments, who provide the ideal, authority, infrastructure and planning procedures to maximis e the benefit for its communities, in a sustainable manner.
The reasons for Local government playing such an important role is due to its channels of communications with its nations powers, who control the actions and decisions of the country. The government creates local governments and provides the framework and influence of decisions that local government makes for its community. This is initially created by government that sets the framework of legislation for local government to abide by. The government then creates local government to enforce the legislature and provide a nurturing role for the community. Government can not address the problems of the entire country, so it uses local government, to distribute its ideas, and hold influence over its regions and communities. This also illustrates that local government plays a major role in a communities development providing the links between the people and government and implements and addresses its community's problems, frameworks and ideals, and receives the correct guidance for developing its regions product.
Local government is ultimately created to nurture, channel and control ideas of the country into its community so as to create benefits and realisation of its full potential. Basically the local government is an intermediary channel ling the framework of government into each individual community in order to create a beneficial outcome. Table one illustrate this communication channel. Table One: Communication channels between government and community Intermediary Initial information sent through the communication channels Relayed information sent from local government to community In today's current society the major role government is to implement the countries ideals. Within tourism development its role is 1.
To protect the communities environment by ultimately decreasing the externalities of tourist influx. 2. Allocate resources in a manner where tourism development is sustainable in the present and into the future. 3. Uphold the well being of the community (Young, Ernst how and why should local government promote tourism 1995 pg 8). Without the role of local government, communities are extremely vulnerable to failure as no authority is available to provide guidance for the correct distribution of resources in development.
This can lead to long term market failure. In tourism development short term benefits of the product will be maximis ed, with increases in employment and economic advantages. But without an authoritative figure to provide guidance in distribution of resources, a sustainable approach will not be taken and therefore the communities long term benefits of their tourism product will fail, and ultimately create market failure and major loses for the entire community. Due to this problem the government authorities have put a large emphasis on the roles which local governments play within the development of different communities. Specific to tourism development emphasis has been placed on the local government's creation of a sustainable product. This can be illustrated by the Resource Management Act of 1991, which provides information concerning the role of local government in sustainable tourism management role.
(Collier Alan Principles of Tourism 1997 pg 369) Because of the local governments power it holds over its communities decision, and the increased emphasis from the nations powers of an increased emphasis on sustainability, local governments hold the key to the allocation of its correct resources. Everything which the community wishes to develop, needs to pass through the local government for granted consent, to create greater benefit for the regions economy and population. This is due to the local governments authority and legislative power within the New Zealand framework. Due to this authority the local government is vital for a communities development. It has the ability to allocate its regions scarce resources in a manner which creates sustainable products providing the maximum benefit to the community. Local government achieves this by the integration of marketing plans and implementation, to provide key ideas to the correct allocation of resources into the community.
For tourism development a product is produced that provides maximum benefit to both the visitor and the community. Because of the local governments links to the entire community it is impossible to state that it has no role to play in tourism, for the very reason that tourism is such a huge industry affecting a large percentage of the community (transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, retail, arts, culture, entertainment) (Young, Ernst how and why should local government promote tourism 1995 pg 12). Even if local government did not want to be a part of tourism it would still be affected due to the broad spectrum of areas that tourism effects. This is actively enhanced by the quote "local government provides a valuable leadership role to a fragmented industry" (plummer, neil tourism and local government 1993 pg 10).
This illustration can not only be illustrated by the authority it has in the community and its allocation and economic roles but also under the aspects of the benefits that this infrastructure provides to the community. The benefits that local government provides to the community under tourism development can be classed into four major roles in the context of tourism development, which ultimately in the community provides key benefits to its tourism success and development of the product. - Enabling- Regulatory- Providing Public Utilities- Amnesties (plummer, neil tourism and local government 1993 pg 9) The enabling role ofthe local government in tourism is its provision for the community to help develop its tourism product. This enabling opportunity is created by the financial avenues that the local government works from. The government provides all regions with a bulk fund from the budget on a yearly basis, which the local government allocates into sectors of the community. Funding and finance is also allocated to local governments from the private sector.
Private businesses and companies provide support to its individual local government in anticipation of receiving future benefits. Grants are also given to the local government by companies in order to create a better community. Ultimately local governments are used as a catalyst by the private sector and government, as they are supplied with the capital to distribute correctly into the community, creating more rapid, positive and beneficial development. Interaction between other local governments is also apparent in financial situations which provides maximum benefits to both communities with increased resources, reduced costs and greater impacts of promotion. This enabling role also entails the provision of organising festivals and events for the community. Entertainment outlets which the local government funds and promotes.
This is ultimately a key aspect to tourism development pulling in tourists from both other regions in the country and around the world. The regulatory role as illustrated previously illustrates the local governments authority and implementation of legislation and the regulation that the community abides by with tourist development. This is an important role for the community to ensure that tourism developments are legal and abide by the law, in creating a sustainable future for the community. This legislation also creates the correct development plans for the local government to implement into the community.
The provision of public utilities is the third key role that the local government plays in its implementation and development of tourism in the community. These are the provisions of utilities for the convenience of the public and tourist (water reticulation, storm water maintenance, sewerage outlets, rubbish, reading, street, information signs, information centres) (Young, Ernst how and why should local government promote tourism 1995 pg 7). This area is a key to the sustainable future of tourist development by keeping the community clean, tidy and well maintained. This will ultimately bring tourists back, due to the pleasures and clean environment they were faced with whilst travelling in each given region. This aspect and role for the local government is one of its major attributes and ultimately influences tourism development within its community. The final role of local government is its amenities with the provision of parks, reserves, pools, libraries and museums.
For the success of any community in tourism are its attractions and the quality of them. With these four roles it illustrates the degree of importance that the local government holds in the development of the tourism product within a community. These four roles are the major influence rs of development and relatively hold a largest influence in the community for its future benefits and success of its tourism product. For the local government a large degree of resources are actually used by themselves in order to create a safe, well maintained and attractive community for the tourist to travel. An important example to illustrate is that of the local governments operations and roles it takes in the Wellington area of New Zealand. These four roles that Wellington used has produced a tourism product which is rapidly growing on a yearly basis.
The local government receives financial backing from a large group of businesses within the district that helps fund and maintain its public utilities and attractions. This is illustrated by a lot of money being invested initially into its public utilities. The Wellington city itself is constantly well maintained, where the streets and roads are constantly cleaned on a nightly basis, with the reading being constantly upgraded when problems occur. Another illustration of public utility provision is with its introduction of information and tourism centers. Another key area within the local governments role is its attractions, which over the past ten years have constantly been upgraded, as illustrated by the revamping of Courtney Place and the Water Front, to the introduction of many key attractions as illustrated by the construction of the national museum Te Papa. Wellington provides an important illustration of what the local government has done for its tourism development and product, it has enhanced the communities benefits, increased the benefit to the community, and ensured a sustainable influence is apparent.
Wellington will continue to be an ever growing tourist destination. This can ultimately be attributed to that of the role the local government plays within its community, to the development of its tourism product. With this illustration of Wellington and the roles it plays in the community it provides a real world example of why local government is so important to tourism development. This can further enhanced by the quote " tourism is important to local government and local government is important to tourism" (plummer, neil tourism and local government 1993 pg 5). Communities in all regions of the world need a local government to enhance the benefits of its tourism development.
This need is ultimately needed to create a sustainable outcome that can create long term benefits and healthy returns for the communities residence. Local government has no role to play in tourism development is a bold statement in the least. The reason for this is local governments steer its communities in the right direction, through allocation of scarce resources into the correct development procedures. Now than ever before the influence of correct allocation has been apparent, as they are becoming far more limited, and if not used correctly, it is inevitable that in the long term market failures will occur. Local government is the key to tourism development in all communities, with its guiding hand it will ultimately produce the best benefit for all on a sustainable level, which will increase tourist arrival, increase community benefit and create a far more wealthy community and country. Bibliography Collier, Alan Principles of Tourism Fourth Edition Longman 1997 New Zealand Tourism Board Tourism in New Zealand Strategy and Progress New Zealand Tourism Board New Zealand Tourism Board Current Issues in New Zealand Tourism 1997 New Zealand Tourism BoardPlimmer, Neil Tourism and Local government 1993 Young, Ernst How and why should local government promote tourism 1995.