RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MISSION AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Manufacturing companies' Research and Development (R & D) groups significantly contribute to United States' fast-paced industrial technology development. They promote industrial growth, and enhance the social well-being of the people. Normally, companies, especially those with enough resources, accept research contracts from the government and the private-sector to undertake the research of: - Medium and long-term applied research in development of generic, forward-looking, and advanced technologies; - Short-term research to improve processes and to develop new products according to industrial needs. Most reset projects will go through a trial mass production to ensure the feasibility of new industrial technologies and plans for strategic withdrawals upon project completion. The research results are disseminated to the industrial sector in a timely and appropriate fashion in accordance with the principles of justice, fairness, and openness.

They also provide industrial services to foster the technological development of small and medium-sized businesses and cultivate human resources in industrial technology for the benefit of the nation. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Research development strategy depends on the present growth of environment and the industrial development potential of the future. The strategy is also attuned to international trends, emphasizes environmental protection and safety issues, as well as preservation of natural resources. Management of Research and Development constantly reviews and revises its task loading to be in effective in its future search for new discipline and avenue of research. In carrying out science and technology projects, manufacturing companies constantly update their focus on forward-looking, innovative technology research and development, and set new goals for promoting advanced technologies. In contrast to the case of fundamental scientific research, the major purpose is the creation of maximum benefits for industry in a five-to-ten- year time frame.

ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Successful companies relied mostly on the abilities of their core of management personnel. Some are also encouraging participative type of management where inputs direct from operators and plant personnel are look at and recommendation to adapt any measures to pursue or to drop the suggestions received. Below is an example of an organization focused on Research and Development. Research Division TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT THROUGH R & D INVENTION The most basic element of technological advance is invention: the first discovery of a product or process through the use of imagination, ingenious thinking, and experimentation and the first proof that it will work. While invention is a process, the result of the process, unfortunately, is also called invention. The first prototype (basic working model) of the telephone, the automobile, the television set, the microchip - each of these is an invention.

Invention is usually based on scientific knowledge and is the product of the individuals, either working on their own or as members of corporate R & D staffs. INNOVATION Innovation, a second element of technological change, draws directly on invention. While invention is "first discovery and proof of workability," innovation is the first successful commercial introduction of a new product, the first use of a new method, or the creation of a new form of business enterprise. Innovation is of two broad types: product innovation, which involves new and improved products or services; and process innovation, which involves new and improved production or distribution methods.