When Adolf Hitler walked into the presidential office of Paul von Hindenburg to become chancellor, the old gentleman was so annoyed he would hardly look at him. He had been kept waiting while Hitler and conservative leader Alfred Hugenberg argued over Hitler's demand for new elections. It was the final argument in what had been a huge tangled web of political infighting and backstabbing that finally resulted in Adolf Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany. Germany was a nation that in its history had little experience or interest in democracy. In January 1933, Adolf Hitler took the reins of a 14 year old German democratic republic which in the minds of many had long outlived its usefulness. By this time, the economic pressures of the Great Depression combined with the indecisive, self serving nature of its elected politicians had brought government in Germany to a complete standstill.
The people were without jobs, without food, quite afraid and desperate for relief. Now, the man who had spent his entire political career denouncing and attempting to destroy the republic, was its leader. Around noon on January 30, Hitler was sworn in. 'I will employ my strength for the welfare of the German people, protect the Constitution and laws of the German people, conscientiously discharge the duties imposed on me, and conduct my affairs of office impartially and with justice to everyone.' - the oath taken by Adolf Hitler. But by this time, that oath had been repeatedly broken by previous chancellors out of desperation and also out of personal ambition. Chancellors Schleicher and Papen had seriously suggested to Hindenburg the idea of replacing the republic itself with military dictatorship to solve the crisis of political stagnation.
He had turned them both down. When a teary eyed Adolf Hitler emerged from the presidential palace as the new chancellor, he was cheered by Nazis and their supporters who believed in him, not the constitution or the republic. 'We " ve done it!' Hitler shouted jubilantly to them. He was to preside over a cabinet that contained, including himself, only 3 Nazis out of 11 posts. Hermann G"or ing was Minister without Portfolio and Minister of the Interior of Prussia. Nazi, Wilhelm Frick, was Minister of the Interior.
The small number of Nazis in the cabinet was planned to help keep Hitler in check. Franz von Papen was vice-chancellor. Hindenburg had promised him that Hitler would only be received in the office of the president if accompanied by Papen. This was another way to keep Hitler in check. In fact, Papen had every intention of using the conservative majority in the cabinet along with his own political skills to run the government himself. 'Within two months we will have pushed Hitler so far in the corner that he " ll squeak,' Papen boasted to a political colleague.
Papen and many non-Nazis thought having Hitler as chancellor was to their advantage. Conservative members of the former aristocratic ruling class desired an end to the republic and a return to an authoritarian government that would restore Germany to glory and bring back their old privileges. They wanted to go back to the days of the Kaiser. For them, putting Hitler in power was just the first step toward achieving that goal.
They knew it was likely he would wreck the republic. Then once the republic was abolished, they could put in someone of their own choosing, perhaps even a descendant of the Kaiser. Big bankers and industrialists, including Krupp and I. G.
Farben, had lobbied Hindenburg and schemed behind the scenes on behalf of Hitler because they were convinced he would be good for business. He promised to be for free enterprise and keep down Communism and the trade union movements. The military also placed its bet on Hitler, believing his repeated promises to tear up the Treaty of Versailles and expand the Army and bring back its former glory. They all had one thing in common - they underestimated Hitler.
On the evening of January 30, just about every member of the SA and SS turned out in uniform to celebrate the new F"uh rer-Chancellor, Adolf Hitler. Carrying torches and singing the H"or st Wessel song, they were cheered by thousands as they marched through the Brandenburg gate and along the Wilhelmstrasse to the presidential palace. Cops on the beat who used to give them trouble now wore swastika armbands and smiled at them. Everywhere was heard the rhythmic pounding beats of jackboots, drums and blaring military parade music.
They saluted Hindenburg as he looked out from a window of the presidential palace. Then they waited at the chancellery for Hitler in a scene carefully staged by Joseph Goebbels. A sea of hand held burning torches cast flickering light on red and gold Nazi banners amid the slow beating of drums in anticipation of seeing the F"uh rer. Men, women, children along with the SA and SS waited. He kept them waiting, letting the tension rise. All over Germany, people listened to this on the radio, waiting, and hearing the throngs calling for their F"uh rer.
When he appeared in the beam of a spotlight, Hitler was greeted with an outpouring of worshipful adulation unlike anything ever seen before in Germany. Bismark, Frederick the Great, the Kaiser, had not seen this. 'Heil! S eig Heil! ,' (Hail! Hail Victory! ) went the chorus of those who believed the hour of deliverance had come in the form of this man now gazing down at them. 'It is almost like a dream - a fairytale. The new Reich has been born. Fourteen years of work have been crowned with victory.
The German revolution has begun!' - Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary, January 30, 1933. An old comrade of Hitler's sent a telegram to President Hindenburg regarding his new chancellor. Former General Erich Ludendorff had once supported Hitler and had even participated in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. 'By appointing Hitler Chancellor of the Reich you have handed over our sacred German Fatherland to one of the greatest demagogues of all time. I prophesy to you this evil man will plunge our Reich into the abyss and will inflict immeasurable woe on our nation. Future generations will curse you in your grave for this action.' - the telegram to Hindenburg from Ludendorff stated.
Within weeks, Hitler would be absolute dictator of Germany and would set in motion a chain of events resulting in the second World War and the eventual deaths of nearly 50 million humans through that war and through deliberate extermination. To begin, Hitler would see the German democratic republic go down in flames, literally. In February, 1933, the Nazis hatched a plan to burn the Reichstag building and end democracy once and for all.