In the early 1950's many things had and where just about to begin. The war had just finished and the world of art was opening new forms such as dada and pop art. There was also people staring to experiment with drugs, rock and roll and sex, all helping them express themselves in there art and writing, such as the beatniks. The likes of Marcel Duchamp and how the politics and anger of world war one became the base on a movement called DADA.
Then Pop art and Andy Warhol not to think about this man would be crazy, Robert Rausenburg became leaders of this movement. Warhols new discovery of "The Velvet under ground" and his hipster hang out the Factory. World War One began in 1914 and continued to murder and upset until the date 1918. It all started from the heat of political heat and the economics of other countries. First it started as a local European war with Austria-Hungary and Serbia on the day that would change the world, July 28, 1914.
The reason the war spread is that more European countries started to get involved and war was declared against Russia on August 1, 1914. After many disputes and other countries from around the world helping one another there where 32 nations becoming involved in the science of murders and power. But when the roots of there war are traced to its soul causes it seems that it was a war for Europe since the causes where dealing with present and past political and economic conflicts of previous century. Then when the art of Dadaism came along it helped reflect the protest and hate of western culture do to the acts of the military in World War One. Another interesting aspect of this movement is the work we did one it in class to reflect no meaning, and the word Dada was said to have been randomly selected from the pages of dictionary by Tristan Tzara, a roman poet, editor, and essayist. The word Dada is also french and means "hobbyhorse" Tzara established this movement in the 1926.
Back in new York others started to show interest in Dadaism, such artist as Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray and many others. The main roots of this movement where in Zurich with the like of german writer Hugo Ball, and Jean Arp. When world war one had shown its ugly face for the last time most of the Zurich Dadaist moved to paris where the movement became the inspiration for the Surrealist movement. To express there thoughts and souls through the Dadaist way they often made art that was not to be understood and to surprise even shock and bewilder the viewer or critic. This was all to show and shock the public into reconsidering there accepted aesthetic values. This was done through the use of every day objects commercial like that would lose the purpose and function when the art was done, this forming a "ready made." The ready made consist of material goods bought or found.
A good example of this was his "Bicycle Wheel" which consist of a stool with a bicycle wheel mounted on top of it, which ruined the use of the stool because know one could any longer site on it and the wheel was not on the ground to role any more. Well know we know about dada and how it was started so lets take a look at Marcel Duchamp. Marcel Duchamp was born in Blain ville, France on July 28, 1887 and continued to amaze and shock critics for a long time. He started many trends in the art times of Dadaism, futurism, surrealism and pop art. He began to start painting in his late 20's. He produced his first most known painting of "Nude Descending a staircase" on 1911.
This painting had cubism and futurism within it. At first the painting was turning backs all over the place, people just didn't like the idea of it, after the showing in the Armory shoe in New York. But in the present we look upon it as a legend one of the best. But Duchamp continued to produce crowd unp leasers like his works of the "sex machines" which should a base of sensuous and / or romantic themes. Within these works he created "The King and the Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes" (1912), and such others as "Bride" (1913).
Yet another one of his works of lust was to be named "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even" also known as "The Large Glass." All these sex machine works can be found in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. After DUCHAMP had his turn at painting he moved more onto the Ready Made, where he created such sculptures as "Bicycle wheel" which was a kinetic sculpture with pre made products some of his other read made he mould simply purchase in a store and sing his name to theme. He also shocked the art scene when he took a phot take of "The Mona Lisa" and began to paint a goatee and moustache upon the photo. Due to the fact that we all must make room for others Duchamp left us in paris on October 1, 1968, which was just a while after the pop art trend had started well on its way. Pop Art: "A form of art that depicts objects from everyday life and employs techniques of commercial art." There where and are many great pop artists that have lived and still live. To name a few there, Andy Warhol, Marcel Duchamp, Robert Rausenburg, and many others.
The hole idea behind pop art was to take an every day commercial value or product and turn it into a simple work of art. I think Roy Lichtenstein said it best when he said "I try to take a cliche- and put it into organized form" One of the biggest helpers to from the pop art era was Robert Rauschenberg, born in 1925 and still smiling like the rest of us. He helped lead the transition from abstract expressionism to pop art. He studied all over the place like in Paris, throughout the USA. He started off with stuff like boxed studies containing blue prints and paintings in black and white. In the begging of the 1950's he worked with collage paintings, freely stroking the canvas with his brush.
The canvas was pre covered in bits and pieces of textiles, ripped news papers, and photographs. He later made sculptures combined with paintings and photos of cliche stuff that was widely liked, such things as coca cola cans and light bulbs and even radios. A very good example of this stile of work would be the mans very own "Monogram" (1955-1959). This work of art has within it a stuffed goat that rests in a the middle of a tire. The tire is to show the use of mass production product, which was to show and enphisize on pop art. Yet one of the great pop artists is also Andy Warhol an America painter who produced such works as "Campbell's soup can" and many others I have yet to talk about.
Warhol was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and attended school at Carnegie Institute of Technology. He was also into the film business creating strange but interesting works of art through the use of video, a very new product that was highly popular. Some of his fils such as "The Chelsea Girls" lasted for as long as seven hours, where actually unedited. he would use actors that tend to hang around at his hip club called "the factory." His films would some times focus on one object with the same camera angle for as long as eight hours.
Some where full improvised dialogue with a lack of plot that should put a person on speed to sleep, and others where done with extreme eroticism. But he did put out some more complex films such as "Lonesome Cowboys' (19690 others lie "trash) 1970. Inside the club an a ray of lights reflected from the tinfoil silver cover walls that in cage this nut house. In his factory studio he would create works to be known by many trendy people. The "Marlin Monroe" pictures wher he simple took here picture and did some black and whit then changed the colors in her face to more light bright colors and put them side to side like a un number contact sheet. Many of his works where on silk screen so they could be copied for ever to meet the demand of a cliche.
Andy also produced images like "sing sing electric chair." Warhol also helped get one of the most inportants rock and role bands on there feet "the Velvet Underground." He helped produce thre Album "Velvet Underground and Nico." Many things and stuff have been written said or done about Andy Warhol, so from the likes of sex stories like "I fucked Andy Warhol till his wig fell off", others like the new reales of the file "I shot Andy Warhol." All in all Warhol has to be one of the biggest influences that have come out of the past hundred years of art. In conclusion to studying this material and having an intrest in it I feel that if I had a time machine I would definatly take my self back to the late fortey's early fifty"s, with some of my fav rote influences like Jack Kerouac, and many many others. To live an era where so many new simple things are found and discover is to live the life of a king, no computers to worry about no mass confusion just new frontiers. Bibolagraphy "Pop Art," Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation.
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