MAJOR MOTIVATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE THEORIES Define the major motivational and emotional response theories that influence behavior." Emotion is a feeling state involving physiological arousal, a cognitive appraisal of situation arousing the state, and an outward expression of the state. The James-Lange Theory "James claimed that first an event causes physiological arousal and a physical response. Only then does the individual perceive or interpret the physical response as an emotion. In other words, saying something stupid causes you to blush, and you interpret your physical response, blushing, as an emotion, embarrassment." He went on to suggest that "we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble " The Cannon-Bard Theory "Emotion-provoking stimuli are received by the senses and are then relayed simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, which provides the conscious mental experience of the emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, which produces the physiological state of arousal. In other words, your feeling of emotion (fear, for example) occurs at about the same time that you experience physiological arousal (a pounding heart). One does not cause the other.
The Schachter-Singer Theory According to his theory, two things must happen in order for a person to feel an emotion. "1. The person must first experience physiological arousal. 2.
Then there must be a cognitive interpretation or explanation of the logical arousal so that the person can label it as a specific emotion." He concluded that "a true emotion can occur only if a person is physically aroused and can find some reason for it." The Lazarus Theory "a cognitive appraisal is the first step in an emotional response, and other aspects of an emotion, including physiological arousal, depend on the cognitive appraisal. This cognitive appraisal determines whether the person will have an emotional response and if so, what type of response. In short, Lazarus contends that emotions are provoked when cognitive appraisals of events or circumstances are positive or negative but not neutral.