Essay writing, free sample essay topics, research papers
You are welcome to search the collection of free essays and term papers. Thousands of essay topics are available. Order unique, original custom papers from our essay writing service.
Sample essay topic, essay writing: Public Health And Economy - 1768 words
NOTE: Essay you see on this page is free essay, available to anyone. We strongly do not recommend using any direct quotes from these essays for credit - you will most probably be caught for copying/pasting off the Internet, as it is very easy to trace where the essay has been taken from by a plagiarism detection program. You are welcome to use these samples for your research, but if you want to be sure that your essay is 100% original and one of a kind, we highly recommend to order a custom essay from us.
.. oductive Systems: Diseases of the human reproductive system; Respiration and Respiratory Systems: Diseases and disorders of respiration; Sensory Reception: Eye diseases and visual disorders and Ear diseases and hearing disorders; Supportive and Connective Tissues: Diseases of the supportive and connective tissues. For a discussion of neuroses and psychoses, see Mental Disorders and Their Treatment. For a discussion of alcoholism and other drug addictions, see Alcohol and Drug Consumption. Disease most commonly is caused by the invasion of an organism by one or more outside agents.
Typically the infectious organisms are microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, viruses, and fungi), but they also can include larger organisms such as parasitic worms or nonliving but harmful substances such as toxins or ionizing radiation. Disease also may result from changes within the organism--an anatomical fault (congenital or acquired) or a physiological malfunction (e.g., diabetes mellitus, in which the body fails to secrete or adequately utilize insulin, a hormone that regulates blood-sugar levels). Other diseases are a combination of external and internal factors. An organism's failure to adapt to changes in its environment can produce damaging changes within it. Physiological malfunctions and disturbances of normal growth can be induced by changes of diet or by invasion of microorganisms or other agents
Nearly all organisms are able to defend themselves against most diseases. Humans and other vertebrates have developed two strategies of resistance, called immunity, to invading agents: nonspecific immunity, which is present in all vertebrates at birth; and specific immunity, which is acquired only after stimulation by the presence of a certain microbe or its products (e.g., the virus that causes chicken pox). Immunity also can be stimulated artificially in humans or other animals by inoculating them with microorganisms that have been killed (as in typhoid vaccine) or weakened (attenuated) ones (as in measles vaccine), which produce the defensive immune reaction without causing the disease. Sometimes an organism's defensive reaction to invasion by an outside agent can become part of the disease. The crippling of the lungs produced by tuberculosis is caused partly by the destruction of lung tissue by the invading microorganisms (in humans, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and partly by the fibrous tissue that the body lays around the infection in a defensive reaction.
Disorders of the immune response itself can produce autoimmune disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) in which the immune response is triggered not by an outside invader but by the body's own tissues, which some cells fight against and try to reject. The immune system also can be disabled by an invading microorganisms, as is the case with the disease AIDS. Not all organisms that invade another produce disease. Some can establish a mutually beneficial relationship with their host without impairing its vital systems; for example, the bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other vertebrates make possible the digestive processes of their hosts. In addition, organisms that are pathogenic to one species may be harmless to another.
A disease that becomes established in an organism usually requires some form of treatment. In most cases, treatment consists of administering drugs that kill the causative agent, restore any physiological or biochemical imbalances that have occurred, or control the symptoms caused by the agent so that the affected organism can continue to function. Other forms of treatment include moving the diseased organism to another environment or removing the diseased parts from the organism. The most effective way to control disease is by preemptory prevention. The best method is to eliminate a disease-causing organism from the environment, such as by killing pathogens or parasites contaminating a water supply. Also effective is the disruption of a pathogen's transmission from one organism to another, either by avoiding contact with body tissues or fluids that harbour a pathogen or by eliminating an intermediary vector (e.g., killing the mosquitoes that transmit malaria to humans).
Disease also may be prevented by removing a susceptible organism from an unhealthful environment, strengthening the organism's defences by making it healthier, or vaccination. From disease TreatmentTreatment of disease in the affected individual is twofold in nature, being directed (1) toward restoration of a normal physiological state and (2) toward removal of the causative agent. The diseased organism itself plays an active part in both respects, having the capacity for tissue proliferation to replace damaged tissue and to surround and wall off the noxious agent, as well as defence and detoxification mechanisms that remove the causative agent and its products or render them harmless. Therapy of disease supplements and reinforces these natural defence mechanisms. Metabolic faults also may sometimes be corrected--for example, by the use of insulin in the treatment and control of diabetes--but more often specific therapeutic measures for idiopathic diseases are lacking. However, advances in gene therapy may be able to correct defective genes that result in disease.
When disease is produced by environmental factors, there is commonly no specific treatment; only removal of the affected individual from exposure to the agent generally allows normal detoxification responses to take over. Again, there are notable exceptions, as in the treatment of lead poisoning with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, an agent that forms complexes with lead that are excreted by the kidney. Treatment of infectious diseases is more effective in general; it assumes several different forms. Treatment of diphtheria with antitoxin, for example, neutralizes the toxin formed by the microorganisms, and host defence mechanisms then rid the body of the causative microorganisms. In other diseases, treatment is symptomatic in the sense of restoring normal body function.
An outstanding example of this is in cholera, in which disease symptoms result from a massive loss of fluid and salts and from a metabolic acidosis; the highly effective treatment consists of restoring water and salts, the latter including bicarbonates or lactates to combat acidosis. More often, however, therapy is directed against the infecting microorganisms by administration of drugs such as sulphonamides or antibiotics. While some of these substances kill the microorganisms, others do not and instead inhibit proliferation of the microorganisms and give host defences an opportunity to function effectively. For other infectious diseases there is no specific therapy. There are, for example, very few antiviral chemotherapeutic agents; treatment of viral diseases is mainly directed toward relief of discomfort and pain, and recovery, if it ensues, is largely a matter of an effective cellular immune response mounted against the invading virus by the host. From disease Major distinctions The normal state of an organism represents a condition of delicate physiological balance, or homeostasis, in terms of chemical, physical, and functional processes, maintained by a complex of mechanisms that are not fully understood.
In a fundamental sense, therefore, disease represents the consequences of a breakdown of the homeostatic control mechanisms. In some instances the affected mechanisms are clearly indicated, but in most cases a complex of mechanisms is disturbed, initially or sequentially, and precise definition of the pathogenesis of the ensuing disease is elusive. Death in human beings and other mammals, for example, often results directly from heart or lung failure, but the preceding sequence of events may be highly complex, involving disturbances of other organ systems and derangement of other control mechanisms. The initial cause of the diseased state may lie within the individual organism itself, and the disease is then said to be idiopathic, innate, primary, or 'essential.' It may result from a course of medical treatment, either as an unavoidable side effect or because the treatment itself was ill-advised; in either case the disease is classed as iatrogenic. Finally, the disease may be caused by some agent external to the organism, such as a chemical that is a toxic agent. In this case the disease is noncommunicable; that is, it affects only the individual organism exposed to it.
The external agent may be itself a living organism capable of multiplying within the host and subsequently infecting other organisms; in this case the disease is said to be communicable. From disease Control of disease Prevention most diseases are preventable to a greater or lesser degree, the chief exceptions being the idiopathic diseases, such as the inherited metabolic defects. In the case of those diseases resulting from environmental factors, prevention is a matter of eliminating, or sharply reducing, the responsible material in the environment. Because these materials originate largely from human activities, prevention ought to be a simple matter of the application of well-established principles of industrial hygiene. In practice, however, this is often difficult to achieve.
The infectious diseases may be prevented in one of two general ways: (1) by preventing contact, and therefore transmission of infection, between the susceptible host and the source of infection and (2) by rendering the host unsusceptible, either by selective breeding or by induction of an effective artificial immunity. The nature of the specific preventive measures, and their efficacy, varies from one disease to another. Quarantine, which is an effective method of preventing transmission of disease in principle, has had only limited success in actual practice. In only a few instances has quarantine achieved prevention of the spread of disease across international borders, and quarantine of individual cases of human disease has long been abandoned as ineffective. It has not been possible to prevent effectively the dissemination of airborne disease, notably airborne fungal diseases of plants and human diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Nor is disease ordinarily controllable by elimination of reservoirs of infection, such as those that occur in wild animals. There are certain exceptions in which the reservoir of infection can be greatly reduced, however; for example, chemotherapy of human tuberculosis may render individual cases noninfectious, and slaughtering of infected cattle may reduce the incidence of bovine tuberculosis. When infection is spread less directly, through the agency of living vectors or inanimate vehicles, it is often possible to break one or more of the links connecting the susceptible host with the source of infection. Malaria can be controlled effectively by the elimination of the mosquito vector, and louse-borne typhus in humans can be regulated by disinfestations methods. Similarly, diseases spread in epidemic form through the agency of water or milk are controlled by measures such as the chlorination of public water supplies and the pasteurization of milk. Artificial immunization against certain diseases provides immunity and may be used in these instances, particularly when other methods of control are impractical or ineffective. The mass immunization of children in their early years has been highly effective in the control of diphtheria, smallpox, and poliomyelitis. Under special circumstances, as in certain military populations, it has been possible to control with prophylactic medicinal agents the spread of disease for which effective vaccines have not been developed.
Sandy Gail nowski.
Research paper and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works Public Health And Economy
Essay help, free essay samples:
B. F. Skinner, Hawthornes Life Versus Life In, Introduction To Provencal, Kids, Sir Anton Dolin, Old People, Free Speech Movement In The Us, The Canterbury Tales: A Character Sketch Of Chaucers Knight, Interpersonal And Small Group Communication, Lady Sings The Blues, Araby Knight, You Cant Judge A Book By Its Cover, Binoptics Corporation, Spanish Civil War Guide To Writing Essay, Usher And Red Death, Bridge Project, and much more...
All rights reserved © 2004-2013 essaypride.com, links