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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Boris Yeltsin - 1001 words
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.. hite House' of Russia and condemned the coup and called for resistance. On the orders of the State Committee on the Emergency Situation, a group formed by coup leaders ordered the military to protect the coup. A tank division latter switched sides and Boris delivered a speech on top of one of the tanks. The coup collapsed latter that day, because of the swift action of Boris and the resistance of the people.
Gorbachev was let free, but found it hard to regain his power. On December 8, 1991, Boris teamed up with the leaders of the Ukraine and Belarus, 'to hammer the final nail into the USSR's coffin.' The three presidents declared that the USSR had ceased to function and that they would establish a voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). On December 25, 1991 President Gorbachev resigned, and the USSR ceased to exist.A Free Russia Boris's top priority was to transform Russia into a capitalist country. In January 1992 a new cabinet under the leadership of Yegor Gaydar released retail and most wholesales prices from government control allowing individuals to engage in trade without interference. Prices skyrocketed at first, but latter equalized as supply and demand kicked in. Latter in 1992, Boris's government took steps to encourage the founding and growth of new companies
Most state firms were organized into joint stock companies. To trim budget deficit, the government slashed military spending, social assistance, and subsidies. Collaborating with international financial organizations, Russia established a stack exchange, a reserve bank, and a civil law code. Despite assurances from Boris that capitalism would yield dividends within a year, the economy slowly shrank from 1992 to 1999. Millions of ordinary people suffered great poverty and unemployment. Frictions in the government were worsened by the government's inability to agree on a constitution.
A majority of voters expressed confidence in Boris in a referendum held on April 23, 1993, but they rejected a proposal for early parliamentary elections. Boris got feed up, and ordered parliament dissolved and the election of a new one. A few representatives refused to stand down, and locked themselves inside the parliament building with hundreds of armed supporters. Boris ordered the army to take back parliament, and because of this riots ensued. After 170 people died the representatives surrendered.
In December 1993 a new parliament was elected and a constitutional referendum was formed whom passed Boris's draft constitution which gave a lot of power to the executive side (president) of the Russian government. Boris's health seriously deteriorated after the crisis of 1993, he developed a serious health problem. Chechnya a mostly Muslim country, whose government which had been trying secede from Russia since 1991, became ever more rebellious. Boris ordered the military to enter the country and assert Moscow's control. After months of fighting and thousands of Russian and Chechen deaths Boris ordered his National Security Advisor to work out a settlement with the Chechens. In August 1996, a cease-fire, a Russian troop withdrawal was agreed upon, and the agreement that a resolution of the conflict will come in five years.
In early 1996, in spit of health problems, Boris decided to run for a second term. In a brilliant campaign Boris Turned his stagnant polls into fifty three percent of the votes. In November 1996 Boris underwent successful heart bypass surgery on his heart. During his recovery there were calls for his impeachment for incapacity to govern, but these demands faded away after his return to the Kremlin.Foreign policy Although there are many internal problems Boris has to deal with many foreign problems, many that come from relations with one or more of the 14 other former USSR republics. In 1997, Boris struck a deal with Ukraine for the division of the Russian Black Sea fleet and the lease of Sevastopol naval station.
Boris has continued with Gorbachev's stance of reducing tension with western nations. Boris has had many meetings with the United States, including ones with George Bush and Bill Clinton. He has also cultivated relations with Germany, France, and Great Britain. In 1997, he aloud former soviet countries to be admitted into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Boris has promoted trade and cooperation with China.
Boris also gave the Kuril Islands back to Japan (for foreign aide, of course); these islands froze all relations between the two countries since the end of World War 2.Today and Tomorrow Boris has had many problems in the last few years. The first would be, the fall of the Asian economy in 1998, which spread fear through out the world; this economic blunder caused the Russians feeble economy to collapse and the Ruble to skyrocket. Second would be, Boris's which has gotten worse and worse, he has had a number of heart attacks and surgery. Third would be Russia's military, which has become very dependent on scavenging for food, clothes, and the corruption that has become very commonplace within 'the ranks.' Fourth would be the Russian space program, which has taken budget, cut after budget cut. Fifth and most recent is the resurgence of violence in Chechnya that has caused the invasion of Russian troops. Sixth are the poverty and crime levels of Russia that have grown exponentially.Boris Yeltsin did as much as any individual to bring about the demise of the USSR. The jury is still out on his contribution to the establishment of a post-Soviet order in Russia. Much will depend on whether his economic policies bear fruit and whether the political institutions he has shaped acquire solidity and more effective checks and balances then they presently contain.Bibliography1.Microsoft Encarta 1994, published by Microsoft Multimedia 19942.Websters concise encyclopedia, published by Softscore inc. 19963.Confesions on the Assigned topics, by Boris Yeltsin, originally published by Russian books inc.
1990, re-published by Barron's international 1993, translated by Thomas Jenkins4.Notes of the President, by. Boris Yeltsin, published by Baron's international 19925.Boris Yeltsin, by Vladimir Solovyov & Yelena Klepikova, published by London books 19956.Boris Yeltsin, by David Sheldon, published by Arrow 19967. Time Magazine, on microfilm Los Angeles county public libraries 1991-19998. New York Times, on microfilm Los Angeles county public libraries 1991-1999.
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