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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Presidential Theory - 1060 words
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.. patronage. Named after Democratic Senator George Pendleton of Ohio, the Pendleton Act changed the civil service system and made a lasting impression on political parties. The legislation called for a merit based system, which grew as presidents inflated it in order to stop the opposing party dead in their tracks. By the time President T.
Roosevelt took office in 1901 workers were more educated. Business' started recruiting for their workforces and political allies gave way to business allies. (Thank you capitalism.) To define the era of the President today is to combine the role of the President as Executive and as an Administrator. The authority of the office depends not only on the person in power, but on the person's interpretation of the Constitution. President Washington managed the nation very specifically
With his strict interpretation of the Constitution, he faithfully executed what had been asked of him, as Commander-in-Chief, Political Leader, and Chief Executive. He left room for interpretation, but saw no need to interrupt the newly free, peaceful nation. He successfully managed, supervised, directed, however you want to phrase it, the nation from 1789-1797. During his report to Congress on November 19, 1794, President Washington demonstrated his ability to effectively manage the government, as stated by William M. Goldsmith; "[he] clearly understood that a government which cannot enforce its laws is no government at all." Clearly, President Andrew Jackson managed the nation in a differently. By taking control of creating legislation, President Jackson identified problems plaguing the country, and tried to fix them, for example the National Bank.
President Jackson clearly and effectively managed the country from 1829-1837, creating a proactive, party-centered legislative initiative. President Jackson, and every President up to President T. Roosevelt, believed their main job was to pass their party's platform. "The White House [became] the center for policy development in the executive.." The formulation of the modern day presidency started with the election of President Teddy Roosevelt. Roosevelt was the first modern President to rely heavily on public appeals. President Roosevelt is well remembered for his personality and his fierce leadership.
He interpreted the Constitution loosely, in order to do "many things not previously done by the president and the heads of departments. I did not usurp power," he said, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive power." As for the weight personality carried within the voting population, personality has attached to it an individualized style of authority. "But the special problem of the Presidency is that every President must break through the excessive deference whish is shown him by associates and subordinates and make clear that he wants plain speaking." The days of "my party" had vanished. Now Presidential candidates, because of the newest Presidential selection shift, are running on personal campaigns that started promises with "I will". Presidential candidates were almost forced to make direct promises to the voting population about their platform including the smallest detail, with hopes of being elected to serve and make good on their promises.
The public expectations were drastically heightened as they came to rest the hopes of their future on the shoulders of one man rather than on one branch or one government. The people's expectations of the President had finally become overwhelming. As stated in the 1937 Brownlow Committee's report, the President needed help, and quickly. The responsibilities of the Chief Executive had grown so cumbersome that had the President been a boat, it would be springing leaks everywhere. The size of the Cabinet and responsibilities of the Executive Branch over the past 150 years by Congress, were now creating various issues for the President and his ability to manage them all effectively.
The commission's report showed the need for the President to receive more staff to advise and assist him in order to attain a less hectic, more structured, effective leadership. In order to aide the President, Congress came through and provided a White House staff for him.The White House staff is a bureaucratic institution the President relies on, on a daily basis. His closest advisors are part of the White House Staff, and are typically connected on the outside to large blocks of constituents, either through lobbyists or Political Action Committee's (PAC). They help in formulating policy, legislative programs-like school vouchers, aiding in the preparation of the Budget and much more. The White House staff has direct communication with The President, or at least their head boss does, and with the information given to the President by his staff; he is able to make informed, knowledgeable, and disciplined decisions for the betterment of The United States of America.
Stephen Hess was wrong with his contention of The President being woefully miscast as a manager. The President has always been a manager. From the New York state Constitution in 1777, to the creation of the Constitution of The United States in 1787-1788, the President has always managed the nation. Beginning with the President acting as Chief Executive, enforcing Congressional legislation and reporting on it, to Chief Administrator engaging in the creation of legislation through a top-down-process, to finally, a combination of the two roles into known today as: Chief Executive. Presidential power has always, and will continue to, function beyond the vaguely worded passages written within the Constitution. Today the President's power to veto legislation still serves as a strong influence over the Federal government. Aside from his role in the law-making process, the President exercises even more authority by issuing Executive Orders that are backed by the force of said laws. The President still supervises the implementation of laws by directing administrative agencies, such as the Department of Interior and the Department of Defense.
The President's responsibilities have remained the same since 1788, yet they have been added to with every newly elected President. Although the evolution of the Presidency is an interesting subject and I respect Professor Hess' opinion, it is clear to me that The Office of The President of The United States of America, has since its infancy, and will continue to be in the future, a strong, decisive, informed, position, in which only the most brilliant, motivated, and disciplined are able to manage. Works Cited1. The American Presidency Origins and Development. Sidney M.
Milkis & Michael Nelson, Congressional Quarterly 1994. pages 82, 263, 293.2. Organizing the Presidency, Stephen Hess. Brookings Institute 2002. 3. www.encarta.com 4. The Power of the Modern Presidency, Erwin C.
Hargrove. Alfred A. Knopf, INC 1974, pg. 304.
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