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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Prozac - 1409 words
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ProzacClassification Fluoxetine is a legal prescribed medication (Fluoxetine, 2000). The brandname of this drug is Prozac (Fluoxetine, 2000). Fluoxetine belongs in a category ofdrugs called selective serotonin prescription (PDR, 2000). This is a synthetic drug(Fluoxetine, 2000).reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (PDR, 2000). Prozac is not acontrolled substance but needs a Usage Prozac is used as an antidepressant, antiobsessional and antibulimicmedication (Fluoxetine, 2000). Prozac is presumed to inhibit the reuptake ofserotonin (Fluoxetine, 2000).
In patients with depression it relieves symptoms ofthe illness (Fluoxetine, 2000). For those with bulimia nervosa Prozac was shown todecrease binge eating and purging when compared to a placebo (Fluoxetine, 2000). In obsessive-compulsive disorder it significantly reduces the symptoms (Fluoxetine,2000). Usage: Epidemiology The use of Prozac is so wide spread that since its release over ten years agothirty-five million have been prescribed world wide in over one hundred differentcountries (PDR, 2000). Over seventeen million patients have been prescribedProzac in the United States alone (PDR, 2000)
Prozac is the worlds mostprescribed antidepressant (PDR, 2000).Warnings Allergic reactions have been noted in some patients; these include: rash,fever, edema, and carpal tunnel syndrome (Fluoxetine, 2000). If these reactionspersist and no other cause can be found treatment with Prozac should bediscontinued (Fluoxetine, 2000). Precautions During the clinical trials anxiety and nervousness were reported by ten tofifteen percent of patients (Fluoxetine, 2000). Persons already underweight anddepressed showed significant weight loss when on Prozac (Fluoxetine, 2000). Prozac should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders (Flouxinte,2000).
The possibility of suicide is greater in those patients who are depressed;therefore Prozac should be administer with supervision to these patients (Fluoxetine,2000). This medication should be only given to patients with anorexia nervosa if thebenefits outweigh the risks (Fluoxetine, 2000). Prozac became the worlds mostprescribed antidepressant herald of its "transformative powers" (Cash, Brown,2000). Among side effects are appetite reduction and weight loss (Cash, Brown,2000). In a study of college age women the knowledge of prozacs weight lossproperties increased the likelihood of a woman deciding to try the drug (Cash,Brown, 2000). The women said they would choose Prozac regardless of the sideeffects if one of the main effects was weight loss (Cash, Brown, 2000).
Women'sperceived notions about being thin outweighed their concerns about the possiblenegative side effects of Prozac (Cash, Brown, 2000). Patients with diabetes mayhave altered glycemic rates while on this medication (Fluoxetine, 2000). I havefound conflicting reports on the use of Prozac and the pregnant woman. I will givethem both consideration in this report. The first is information that may be outdated.
A study was conducted in 1993 to see the outcome of women using Prozacin their first trimester (Pastustak, 1993). The study followed 128 pregnant womenwho were given a dose of 25 mg per day of Prozac compared to women taking aplacebo (Pastustak, 1993). The results of the study showed that malformations inthe women who took Prozac were comparable with the women who were given aplacebo (Pastustak, 1993). The only effect on the expectant mothers that was higherin Prozac use was an increased risk of miscarriage (Pastustak, 1993). Theconclusion of the researchers was that Prozac did not have an increased risk ofmajor malformations (Pastustak, 1993).
There have been no studies to date of thelong term effects of using Prozac on the unborn child (Pastustak, 1993). The mostrecent information is stated next. Pregnant women should not be prescribed Prozacunless absolutely necessary, because the effects on the unborn child have not beendiscovered (Fluoxetine, 2000). Lactating women should also avoid Prozac, becausethe effects on a newborn child have not been tested thoroughly (Fluoxetine, 2000). Carl Elliott feels that Prozac changes a person's personality (Degrazia, 2000). Many people feel that they need Prozac because there are some minor complicationsin their lives (Degrazia, 2000).
They feel that if they change or alter theirpersonality that everything will be all right (Degrazia, 2000). E. T. Juengst stated inhis book Enabling Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications (1998 pp.29-47Washington DC, Georgetown University Press) that many people want"Interventions designed to improve human form to sustain or restructure goodhealth." (Degrazia, 2000). Many enhancements are preformed to improve thehuman for or function which do not respond to guinuine medical need (Degrazia,2000).
In Peter Kramer's book Listening To Prozac (1993, New York, VikingPress) he calls Prozac "cosmetic psychopharmacology" (Degrazia, 2000). Hedescribes patients on Prozac who are not really mentally ill who take the drug tobecome "better than well": more socially attractive, more energetic and moreconfident (Degrazia, 2000). One of his major concerns is that patients may continueto use Prozac as a was of avoiding dealing with issues that really plague them(Degrazia, 2000). Drug Interactions Patients who are on MAO inhibits should not be prescribed Prozac(Fluoxetine, 2000). Reports of serious and sometimes fatal interactions haveoccurred when combined with MAO inhibitors (Fluoxetine, 2000) Some reactionsare that are encountered when a patient takes an MAO inhibitor and Prozac are: rigidity, mental status changes that are accompited with extreme agitation continuingto delirium and even coma (Fluoxetine, 2000) Patients should wait fourteen daysafter using an MAO inhibitor before administration of Prozac (Fluoxetine, 2000)After taking Prozac a patient must wait at least five weeks before using a MAOinhibitor (Fluoxetine, 2000) The reason for this is because the chemicals in Prozachave a very long half-life in the body (Fluoxetine, 2000). The half-life of Fluoxetineafter a single dose is two days (Fluoxetine, 2000).
After thirty days theconcentrations of Fluoxetine in the body are 91 to 302 ng/ml (Fluoxetine, 2000). For this reason physicians should observe the prescribed time guidelines foradministration of Prozac (Fluoxetine, 2000). When a patient is also taking lithiumthere may be an increased and a decreased effect of the lithium. (Fluoxetine, 2000). In some patients there is an decreased effect of Librium and in others there is anincreased effect (Fluoxetine, 2000).
Some cases of lithium toxicity have beendocumented (Fluoxetine, 2000). The levels of lithium must be monitored whenthese drugs will be given in combination (Fluoxetine, 2000). Few patients whowere taking Fluoxetine with trytophan experienced adverse reactions (Fluoxetine,2000). The half-life of diazepam can be lengthened when taken in combination theProzac (Fluoxetine, 2000). Prozac is a drug that binds tightly with plasma proteins,so other drugs that do this must be monitored (Fluoxetine, 2000). Before electivesurgery Fluoxetine should be discontinued because there are no studies to showpossible reactions (Fluoxetine, 2000). A drug interaction may occur in patientstaking selegiline (McKeny, 1998).
Adverse reactions include confusion,restlessness, sweating, shivering, tremors, diarrhea, and fever (McKeny, 1998). Aperson should avoid taking selegiline with Prozac (McKeny, 1998). They shouldnot take Prozac until two weeks after stopping selegiline (McKeny, 1998). Aperson taking Fluoxetine should avoid alcohol (PDR, 2000). Prozac users shouldalso tell the doctor if they are taking any blood thinners, or medicines that can causesleepiness (PDR, 2000). Adverse Effects Some effects of Fluoxetine are: headache, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness,fatigue, anxiety, tremor, dizziness, lightheadedness, and gastrointestinal complaints(Fluoxetine, 2000). Some other side effects include: changes in taste, having to goto the bathroom more often and decreased interest in sex or loss of ability to havesex (PDR, 2000). Behavioral side effects include: agitation, abnormal dreams,confusion, delusions, and hallucinations (Fluoxetine, 2000).
There have been nostudies conducted on whether Prozac causes physiological or physical dependence(PRD, 2000). There has been no research done on the potential for abuse, toleranceor physical dependence (PDR, 2000).Overdose During clinical trials there were two deaths out of thirty-eight reports ofoverdose with Fluoxetine, eight were alone or in combination with alcohol (PDR,2000). In one death the person took 1800mg of Fluoxetine and an unknown amountof maprotiline (PDR, 2000). The second death involved three drugs, one of whichwas Fluoxetine (PRD, 2000). Another patient took over 3000mg and had two grandmal seizures and then recovered (PDR, 2000). After marketing the drug there havebeen sixteen reports of overdose (PDR, 2000).
There were no deaths in this groupof patients (PDR, 2000). The overdose patients were all given activated charcoal(PDR, 2000). Since then the incidence of overdose has been rare (PDR, 2000). There are no specific antidotes for Fluoxetine overdose (PDR, 2000). Dosage For depression the initial adult dose is 20mg once daily, for bulimia it is 60mg, and for obsessive compulsive it is 20 to 60 mg a day (Fluoxetine, 2000).
Fluoxetine is supplied in a 20 mg liquid form and in capsule form it is given in 10 to20 mg (Fluoxetine, 2000). REFERENCESCash, T. F., Brown M. A., 2000, Perceptual and Motor Skills. "Attitudes AboutAntidepressants: Influence of Information About Weight-Related SideEffects." Apr: 90(2): 453-6. Missoula Montana, Perceptual and Motor Skills.Degrazia, D., 2000.
The Hastings Center Report. "Prozac, Enhancement andSelf-Creation." Mar-Apr: 30(2): 34-40.ELI Lilly and Company, 2000. "Prozac: Fluoxetine Hydrochloride." http://www.prozac.comLong, P. W. MD. 1995-2000.
Internet Mental Health. "Fluoxetine: Brand NameProzac." http:www.mentalhealth.com/fr30.htmlMcKenry, L. M. PhD., Salerno, E. RPh. 1998. Pharmacology in Nursing.
pp.191,464. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book, Inc.Pastuszak, A. BSc, et. al.
1993. JAMA "Pregnancy Outcome FollowingFirst-Trimester Exposure to Fluoxetine (Prozac)." May 5; 269(17): 2246-8. Chicago, American Medical Association.Physicians Desk Reference, 2000. "Fluoxetine: Prozac" pp.962-965. Montvale,NJ. Medical Economics Company.
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