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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Charles Cornwallis - 1048 words
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The BeginningOn December 31, 1738, Charles Cornwallis was born the second Earl Cornwallis, sincehis father, the fifth Baron Cornwallis, had been rewarded as a Viscount and the first EarlCornwallis. In 1661, Sir Frederick Cornwallis was rewarded a baron try by Charles II forservice to the Stuarts. His mother was the niece of Sir Robert Walpole. His uncle becamehe Archbishop of Canterbury. Cornwallis was educated at Eton and moved in elite socialcircles.In 1756, about a month before his eighteenth birthday, Cornwallis purchased an ensign'scommission in the Grenadier Guards and then took the extraordinary measure ofattending a military school in Turin, Italy to actually study for the position.
He actuallyonly stayed a few months, because he learned that his regiment had been called up toserve in the Seven Years' War in the allied army under Prince Ferdinand in 1758. Henever caught up with his own regiment, but he soon became aide-de-camp to the Britishsecond-in-command Marquis of Granby, who would eventually command all Britishforces on the European continent. He was present at the Battle of Minden on August 1,1759.After serving as a staff officer for about a year, in August 1759, Cornwallis was promoted to Captain in the 85th regiment and returned to England to join his new Colonel of the 12th Foot and took command of the unit in June. On July 15, 1761, the unit was heavily engaged at Vellinghausen, Germany. It would see many other minor engagements before entering winter quarters
The unit continued to see action in 1762.In July 1762, Cornwallis received word that his father had died the previous month, passing the estate and a seat in the House of Lords on to Charles, now 2nd Earl Cornwallis. He assumed the seat in the House of Lords in November 1762. He managed to remain in favor with the court even though he voted against the Stamp Act in March 1765. In July 1765, he was appointed a lord of the bedchamber. He was named aide-de-camp to the King in August 1765.
In March 1766, he voted against the Declaratory Act. In March 1766, Cornwallis purchased a colonelcy of the 33rd foot. In 1768, he married Jemima Tulle kin Jones, the daughter of the untitled Colonel James Jones of the 3rd Foot Guards. The marriage would produce first a daughter, Mary and then a son, Charles. He then declined further service in the government and in 1769; he gave up his appointment as lord of the bedchamber for the post of joint vice-treasurer of Ireland.
In 1770, he became a member of the King's Privy Council. In 1771, he became Constable of the Tower of London. In 1775, he was promoted to Major General, which continued to show that King George III trusted in his abilities even though Cornwallis opposed the King's policies against the American colonies.War Times In the fall of 1775, the British began to assemble in the southern colonies. Now Major General Charles Cornwallis, he was ordered to sail 7 regiments with 2 companies of artillery from Cork. Cornwallis had easily advanced in the Kings services and asked for the job. Vice Admiral Peter Parker warships were to convoy Cornwallis' 2,000 troops in 30 odd transports.
They were to meet an officer appointed by Commander-in-Chief General Howe and leave the men. Even though after the men left Cornwallis' hands the were defeated he would get promoted later.Long Island August 22-29, 1776: Now Lieutenant General Cornwallis commanded Howe's reserves along with the Hessian led Colonel Carl von Donop. They went ahead 4.5 miles ahead to clear the woods for Howe's main group. They stopped in Flatbrush spoiling Washington's plans to get Cornwallis to led him to Howe. As Washington watched Cornwallis from a hill the British main body pushed forward undetected. Eventually the British caught on and were slowed down.
The Americans then went for Flatbrush. Cornwallis with his 71st regiment and 2nd grenadier divsion on Gowanus Road blocking Strilings(American) rear. It was the strongest fight that day 1."Rejoice my friend, for we have given the Rebels a d-d crush. The Hessian and our Brave Highlander gave no quarter, and it was a fine sight to see with their bayonets after were had surrounded them so they could not resist."- British officer Stirling who was being pursued ran right into Cornwallis. 5x the Marylanders had pushed Cornwallis back but the 6th final push Cornwallis was reinforced and he drove back the Americans. 2."They fought like wolves."- Stirling after losing to Cornwallis.
They Americans broke into small groups and tried to escape into the woods. Only an officer name Gist and 9 others made it. Stirling was to missing. 256 Marylanders were killed our captured. 3." ..the British, by a route we have never dreamed, surrounded us and driven us into their lines or scattered us into the woods.
All expect for the Delaware & Maryland Battalions, who were at the bay with double their numbers."- American Riflemen on the retreat The American reinforced the next day and were expecting to be stormed by the British, but the British just pulled back and rested leaving the American paranoid and restless, missing the chance have completely crush the Americans, who marched off into New York beat up and counting their blessings.Hudson River Forts Campaign August-November 1776 Washington had left garrisons on the Hudson River. Colonel said he could hold the Redcoats off till November who were in Long Island at the time. Washington put Nathaniel Greene in command even though he had his dowts that the garrison could be held that long. The New Jersey Militia reinforced the shorelines waiting for a British attack. They only had 2900.
Magaw , second in command, stationed Colonel Moses Rawlings with a group of riflemen to secure Fort Washington. 200 Pennsylvanians led by Colonel Baxter occupied fleches on Laurel Hill. 2 miles south 800 men under Lt. Colonel Lambert Cadwalder occupied the front line on Harlem Heights. Each attachment was about a mile apart.
Howe knew of the plan and sent Lord Percy to attack Calwalader, and Generals Matthews & Cornwallis to lead an assault on Laurel Hill. Howe and others attacked Fort Washington and pushed the into the waiting Highlanders. 8,000 British stormed the Americans. Cornwallis easily took his position and the positioned his troops to force Calawalder into Fort Washington. By the end of November the Americans lost their foothold in New York.New Jersey Campaign November 1776-January 1777 On the 20th of November, Howe sent 4,000 men under the command ...
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