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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Buyer Behviour - 1401 words
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.. e original motivations of strict functionality and economy that was necessary at an earlier life cycle stage.5. Older married couples with no children living in the home Here, disposable income can be quite high. However, tastes are likely to be firmly rooted reflected in unchanging purchasing patterns. Thus marketers will have difficulty when attempting to change predispositions, so the best policy will be through attempts to refine and add value rather than to introduce new concepts and ideas.6.
Older retired couples and single people At this stage, most consumer durables have been purchased although occasional replacements will be required. Purchasing is low and patterns of purchasing are conservative and predictable. This group of consumers is increasing rapidly. Such people tend to be less reliant solely on the 'State pension', many having subscribed to occupational pensions from former employers, which boosts the State pension. This allows this group to lead more active lives and the tourist industry now actively targets this particular market segment.In the past the tendency was for clearer demarcations of purchasing responsibility in terms which partner was responsible for which purchases. Nowadays, this distinction is far less clear cut as family roles have tended to merge in terms of women taking on traditionally viewed male roles and vice versa
Marketers should, therefore, engage in research before determining whom to target for their marketing efforts.3.3 Individual buyer behaviourAs well as being influenced by the outside environment, people also have their own individual beliefs. It is important that we should know what these are in order that we can better understand how individuals respond to marketing efforts. Individuals are different in terms of how they look, their education, their feelings and their responses to marketing efforts. Some will behave predictably and others less predictably according to an individual's personality. The individual consumer absorbs information and develops attitudes and perceptions.
In marketing terms, this will affect an individual's needs as well as determining how to satisfy them. The task of marketing is to identify patterns of behaviour which are predictable under given conditions, which will increase the marketer's ability to satisfy customer needs, which is at the very base of marketing. In order to more fully understand this concept we shall concentrate on five psychological concepts which are recognised as being very important when attempting to understand buyer behaviour:o personality and self conceptThis means how we think other people see us, and how we see ourselves. As individuals we might wish to create a picture of ourselves that is acceptable to our reference group. This is communicated to the outside world by our individual behaviour. Marketers are interested in this behaviour as it relates to our purchase and consumption of goods. The sum of this behaviour is an individual self-statement and is a non-verbal form of communication.
This self image is expressed in a way which relates to our inner selves and this promotes acceptance within a group. Direct advertising appeals to the self image are now being made through behavioural segmentation. 'Self' is influenced by social interaction and people make purchases that are consistent with their self concept in order to protect and enhance it. The constant process of re-evaluating and modifying the self concept results from a changing environment and changing personal situations.Personality is the principal component of the self concept. It has a strong effect upon buyer behaviour. Many purchase decisions are likely to reflect personality, and marketers must consider personality when making marketing appeals.
Psychological theory suggests that we are born with instinctive desires which cannot be satisfied in a socially acceptable manner and are thus repressed. The task of marketing in this context is to appeal to inner needs, whilst, at the same time, providing products which enable them to be satisfied in a socially acceptable way.o MotivationAn early thinker insofar as motivation is concerned was the psychologist, Sigmund Freud who lived between 1856 and 1939. His theories have been criticised since, but as a theorist, his theories are of fundamental value. He was responsible for identifying three levels of consciousness:o The conscious which includes all sensations and experiences of which we are aware;o The pre-conscious which includes the memories and thoughts which we have stored from our experiences and we can bring to mind when we wish;o The unconscious that is the major driving force behind our behaviour and this includes our wishes and desires of which we are not always aware.Within these levels of consciousness there are mental forces at work attempting to reconcile our instincts with the social world in which we live and these are not always in accord so we experience emotional difficulties. Freud's term for these are:o The 'Id' which is the reservoir for all our physiological and sensual instincts. It is selfish and seeks instant gratification regardless of social consequences;o The 'superego' which develops as we grow and learn from family, friends, teachers and other influences. It functions as our internal representation of the values and morals of the society in which we have grown up.
It is a potent force and comes into conflict with the demands made by our id for the gratification of what might be anti-social desires;o The 'ego' which attempts to resolve the conflict between the id and the superego and tries to redirect our id impulses into socially and morally acceptable modes of expression.Marketers are interested in motivation when it relates to purchasing behaviour. This behaviour relates to the motive for wishing to possess the goods or services in question, and it has been termed 'goal-related behaviour'. For a motive to exist there must be a corresponding need. Motives like hunger, thirst, warmth and shelter are physiological. Others, like approval, success and prestige are psychological.
Motives like staying alive are instinctive whilst motives like cleanliness, tidiness and proficiency are motives that are learned during life. We can also discern between rational and emotional motives. Most purchasing decisions are a composite of such motives, quite often a deciding factor might be price which is of course more of an economic restriction than a motive. It can, therefore, be seen that a number of motives might be at play when making a purchasing decision - some motives stronger than others - and the final decision might be a compromise solution.In 1954 the psychologist Abraham Maslow put forward his classic 'hierarchy of needs' which is shown in Figure 1. This hierarchy is now central to much thinking in buyer behaviour.
Self actualis- ation Achievement qualifications Respect and self- esteem Social needs - recognition and belonging Safety needs - protection and security Physiological needs - hunger, thirst and shelter Figure 1 Hierarchy of needs (from A.H.Maslow)Physiological needs are concerned with self preservation and these are the basic needs of life involving those elements required to sustain and advance the human race. Safety needs relate to protection against danger and deprivation. Once the more basic needs have been satisfied behaviour is influenced by the need for belonging, association and acceptance by others. In many texts the next two needs are put together, but here we have separated respect and self esteem in terms of confidence, competence and knowledge and have then placed achievement in terms of qualifications and recognition above this. The final need is what Maslow termed 'self actualisation' which means self-fulfilment in terms of becoming all that one is capable of being and one has reached the pinnacle of personal potential.It is argued that when more basic needs like hunger ant thirst have been satisfied, then individuals will move towards satisfying higher order needs towards the apex of the pyramid and look increasingly for satisfactions that will increase status and social acceptability.
When the apex of the pyramid has been reached and other satisfactions have been achieved the prime motivation is then one of acquiring products and accomplishing activities that allow self expression. This can be in the form of hobbies, particularly collecting, which may have been desired for a long time, but have been neglected until the lower order needs have been satisfied. It is of course not possible to formulate marketing strategies on the hierarchy theory on its own. Its real value is that it suggests that marketers should understand and direct their effort at the specific needs of their customers, wherever the goods one is attempting to promote is in the hierarchy.
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