Camille LattimoreCognitionOutlineFeb. 7, 2005 In society we use many different devices to aid us with our everyday learning. We have come to know these devices to be educational technologies. This paper will focus on educational technologies and the impact that it has on our everyday society. Key points: o I will address the question of what educational technology is.
I will also be talking about what the different uses for educational technologies are. o Within my paper I will be discussing the recent and not so recent research for educational technologies. o I will also be discussing the difference between educational technology and technology in education and what makes these two things different. o I will also be addressing some important accomplishments that have been made in educational technologies.
o I will discuss the connection between cognitive learning and educational technologies. Vol. 11, No. 1, 2003 The Digital Divide (DD): A Re conceptualization for Educators Vernon Harper California State University, San Bernardino, CA The author attempts to elaborate upon the popularized notion of the digital divide (DD). Previously, the DD has been defined as a lack of access to information technology for specific groups.
This 'access DD,' in the opinion of the author, is an incorrect conceptualization for educators. The author then explains why educators must redirect their attention and resources to solve the more nebulous 'social DD.' The notion of a digital divide (DD) has inspired the activity of government, business, and academia. Each of these communities carries differing sets of means, motives, and responsibilities; however, they generally agree that the DD must be bridged. The phrase 'digital divide' is actually a distilled label for a relationship between the information haves and have-nots.
As a metaphor, the phrase works well. Meaning that, the word 'divide's ignifies an information barrier between different groups. However, the problem with the metaphor is that it focuses too much attention upon the divide as opposed to the divided. Gilmore (2000) explained candidly, 'lets stop pretending that we " ve solved all that much when we run some wiring through the crumbling walls of a public school... all we " ve done is install hardware, the easy part of the job.' As currently conceptualized, the DD is a hardware problem. A problem solved when the barriers to access are removed.
In contrast, a 'social DD' incorporates the social, cognitive, and communicative barriers proven to affect technology perception and use. It is the aim of this essay to re-conceptualize the DD for educators away from a simple lack of access and toward the social, cognitive, and communicative factors that truly divide groups. Telecommunications as a Context for Supporting Science Teachers Implementing Technology in the Classroom Eric Plot nick. Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2004.
Vol. 52, Iss. 4; pg. 118, 2 pgs Author (s): Eric PlotnickDocument types: General Information Publication title: Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2004. Vol.
52, Iss. 4; pg. 118, 2 pgs Source type: PeriodicalISSN/ISBN: 10421629 Pro Quest document ID: 786054611 Text Word Count 215 Document URL: web ientId = 15107&RQT = 309&VName = PQDFull Text (215 words) Copyright Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2004 Implementing Technology in the Classroom Telecommunications as a Context for Supporting Science Teachers Implementing Technology in the Classroom. Mary E. Hatton and Gerald A begg.
1999. 20 pp. This study documents the type of support and professional growth science teachers gained as they implemented technologies from summer institutes. Teachers and staff maintained communication after the program through a telecommunications network. This study involved 91 high school science teachers from across the country who participated in an NSF funded science program. A two week institute introduced content about 'patterns in nature,' an interdisciplinary approach to science, with an emphasis on various technologies: computer simulations, data collection and analysis software, alternative assessment programs (Audit, et al.
, 1996); and understanding the role of telecommunications in the teaching of science. Teachers interacted with program staff and fellow participants prior to and following the workshop through a commercial telecommunications network. Teachers most frequently initiated topics relating to technology. Observations from teacher dialogue indicated that teachers required individual staff support through email, but also engaged in sharing technology resources and classroom experiences with colleagues and staff, and reflected about their teaching in public areas of the network. This telecommunications network created a professional context comparable to collegial environments and other current models of professional development. Available from ERIC as ED 479 363.
Sense of community in a higher education television-based distance education program Alfred P Rovai, Robert Lucking. Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2003. Vol. 51, Iss.
2; pg. 5>> Jump to full text Author (s): Alfred P Rovai, Robert Lucking Document types: General Information Publication title: Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2003. Vol.
51, Iss. 2; pg. 5 Source type: PeriodicalISSN/ISBN: 10421629 Pro Quest document ID: 358280001 Text Word Count 6659 Document URL: web Like This >>Show Options for finding similar documents Full Text (6659 words) Copyright Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2003 [Headnote]The purpose of this study was to measure sense of classroom community in a television-based higher education distance education course and in the same course taught by the same instructor in a traditional face-to-face learning environment, in order to determine if differences existed and if so to identify the nature of these differences. Participants for this study consisted of 120 adult learners who were enrolled in either of two sections of a semester-long undergraduate educational technology course offered by an urban state university.
One section was taught traditionally and the other section was taught to a small studio audience and at a distance to 24 remote classroom sites using synchronous one-way television and two-way audio technologies. Study results revealed a significantly lower sense of classroom community among learners in the distance education course, to include the studio audience. [white square] The move of many schools, particularly post secondary schools, toward increased use of technology to deliver courses and programs at a distance has raised the question of how to foster community among learners who are physically separated from each other (Pall off & Pratt, 1999). Many students feel isolated in distance education courses and do not feel that they are part of a community (Brown, 1996; Ram & Reed, 1998). Keegan (1986) believed that the separation of student and teacher imposed by physical distance removes a vital communication link. This link must be restored through course design and teaching method in order to reintegrate students in the learning process.
Citing Tinto (1975), Keegan hypo the sized that students who do not receive adequate reintegration measures will less likely experience complete academic and social integration. Such a situation can lead to feelings of loneliness, low self-esteem, isolation, and low motivation to learn (Frymier, 1993). Students with low sense of community are also more likely to become dropouts (Sheets, 1992). Building and sustaining strong feelings of community can help reverse these negative course A case study of Chinese students' attitudes toward their first online learning experience Heng-Yu Ku, Linda L Lohr. Educational Technology, Research and Development.
Washington: 2003. Vol. 51, Iss. 3; pg. 95 Author (s): Heng-Yu Ku, Linda L Lohr Document types: General Information Section: International review Publication title: Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2003.
Vol. 51, Iss. 3; pg. 95 Source type: PeriodicalISSN/ISBN: 10421629 Pro Quest document ID: 450193041 Text Word Count 3329 Document URL: web ientId = 15107&RQT = 309&VName = PQDFull Text (3329 words) Copyright Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2003 Most universities offer a traditional face-to-face format to deliver their courses in instructional design; few offer them in online format. What concerns or suggestions did Chinese students have while taking an online course in instructional design? This study investigated the perceptions and attitudes of five Chinese students toward their first online learning experiences, and explored issues concerning cultural influences in the online learning environment. Suggestions for improving the design of distance learning environments for Chinese students are provided.
Distance education is rapidly becoming an important method of instructional delivery for various educational contexts. Numerous studies have compared the performance of distance learners to that of traditional classroom learners (Moore & Thompson, 1990; Russell, 1998). The broad consensus among these performance studies is that there appears to be no significant difference in learner achievement between these two modes. Generally speaking, the attitudes of students have been very positive and supportive toward online instruction (Chang, 2000).
Although existing research has focused largely on student achievement or technical issues, less attention has been given to student experiences (Hara & Kling, 2000; Scrum, 1998). There are even fewer studies that focus on the experiences of international students in the online learning environment. The importance of cultural influence on human behavior has encouraged many researchers to incorporate the role of culture into psychological theories (Peptone & Tri andis, 1987; Yehuda & Sharon, 1987). Hofstede (1980, 1984) identified and labeled four dimensions of cross-cultural values: (a) power distance: the extent to which power, prestige, and wealth are unequally distributed in a culture; (b) uncertainty avoidance: the value placed on risk and ambiguity in a culture; (c) individualism-collectivism: the individualistic cultures stress the individual's goals while the collectivist cultures emphasize group goals; and (d) masculinity-femininity: the masculine traits include strength, assertiveness, and competitiveness while the feminine traits include affection, compassion, and emotionality.
According to Hofstede (1984), the Taiwanese culture has larger power distances and stronger uncertainty avoidance, while the United States culture has smaller power distance and weaker uncertainty avoidance. Taiwanese societal norms were collectivism and femininity while the U. S. norms were individualism and masculinity.
When East meets West, Asian and American differ in Teachers' beliefs about issues in the implementation of a student-centered learning environment Susan Pedersen, Min Liu. Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2003. Vol. 51, Iss. 2; pg.
57>> Jump to full text Author (s): Susan Pedersen, Min Liu Document types: General Information Publication title: Educational Technology, Research and Development. Washington: 2003. Vol. 51, Iss. 2; pg.
57 Source type: PeriodicalISSN/ISBN: 10421629 Pro Quest document ID: 358280011 Text Word Count 11924 Document URL: web Like This >>Show Options for finding similar documents Full Text (11924 words) Copyright Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2003 [Headnote]Teachers' implementation of technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments (Sales) will be affected by their beliefs about effective practices. In order for student-centered programs to be used as intended, designers must be aware of the key issues that will shape their implementation and the beliefs teachers hold about these issues. This case study examined 15 teachers' beliefs about student-centered learning as they implemented Alien Rescue, a computer-based program for middle school science that was designed to create a SALE in the classroom. Considerations for the design of similar programs are offered. Concurrent interest in learning guided by a constructivist perspective and advances in computer technology have led to a renewed interest in student-centered learning (Land & Hannafin, 2000).
Student-centered learning requires students to set their own goals for learning, and determine resources and activities that will help them meet those goals (Jonassen, 2000). Because students pursue their own goals, all of their activities are meaningful to them. A variety of approaches fit beneath the umbrella of student-centered learning, including case-based learning, goal-based scenarios, learning by design, project-based learning, and problem-based learning. Common to these different approaches is a central question (Jonassen, 1999) that creates a need for certain knowledge and activities. This question may be stated or implied, and can take a variety of forms, including a problem, an issue, a case, or a project.
Though student-centered learning includes approaches in which this question can be determined by the student (Hannafin, Land, & Oliver, 1999), a common characteristic of the approaches listed above is that students are presented with a situation or activity which frames this central question, thereby giving learners a common goal. The central question is usually at least somewhat ill structured, meaning that the goals and constraints of the question are not clearly stated, there may be multiple justifiable responses, responses may incorporate trade offs or drawbacks, it is not obvious what concepts or actions are relevant to the development of a response, and learners must make and justify decisions (Jonassen, 1997). Work begins with the presentation of this central question, and learning is the result of student efforts to develop a response to that question. As with the question, the response can take a variety of forms, such as a solution, an opinion, a decision, a plan of action, a design, or other product, depending on the nature of the central question. Student-centered approaches are often defined by contrasting them with traditional instructional approaches characterized by greater teacher direction (e.
g. , Cuban, 1983; Hannafin et al. , 1999). Key differences between the two approaches include goals, roles, motivational orientations, assessments, and student interactions, each of which is discussed in the following paragraphs..