The divergence of local culture is apt to occur. With this enculturation a new language or dialect of language often is born. This paper will discuss the factors which cause language to change. It will focus on the development of "New-Englishes." What are "New-Englishes"? They develop from areas, which have been in contact with an English-speaking colony the process involves five main steps Foundation, Exo normative Stabilization, Nativization, Endo normative Stabilization, and finally differentiation.
Foundation is the first stage, this involves a group of English speaking settlers who create an English speaking base in an area where English is not a spoken language. The settlers previous accents and dialects play an enormous role in how the indigenous people learn English. As the settlers often have different dialects of English themselves, the most universal words and phrases of all the dialects are often included in the "New-English's" vocabulary where as the regionalisms of each English dialect will often be dropped. This stage is often awkward for both the parties involved as cross-cultural understanding is often minimal and communication is limited to a few.
Thus communication between the indigenous people and the settlers is inhibited. Often with military installations no attempt is made to learn the native language and the emerging dialect is mainly based on the English language. This is not the case with examples like trading posts or Linguistic Anthropologists who attempt to learn the native language to facilitate trade or research. The "New-Englishes" that emerges from these would contain a solid base from both Native and English languages.
During this period the native language affects the English spoken, often the first words frequently used of the Native language are place names such as in the United States with Chattahoochee, Mississippi, Milwaukee, Susquehanna, Chicago, Tallahassee, all these are of Native American origin. The second stage is where an abrupt change occurs the indigenous people realize that it is beneficial to be able to communicate with the settlers. The settlers generally do not attempt to learn the local dialect, as they often believe that they are doing a deed for their country of origin and that once they return their language will again be the norm. This is theorized for both settlers who plan to stay in the foreign country and those who will return after a period of time.
The indigenous language begins to work it's way into the English language as mentioned earlier through place names but also through new species of animals, plants, and new objects. This is often where the "New-English" forms it's own unique words. Around this time is when the indigenous people begin to shift their patterns of language often using the pattern of their own language but with English words or the opposite using the English pattern of speaking with their native vocabulary. When the indigenous culture begins to change and their traditional identities begin to switch this is the stage known as Nativization. The new identity combines the foreign language with their own and as these languages mingle it increases the communication. As the communication increases it affects how the two countries regard each other politically, as Greenbaum states " Political independence is a precursor of linguistic independence' (1996 a: 11).
In this stage countries feel 'semi-autonomous' as many gain some form of government based on the settlers country but inhabitants still feel some physiological ties to the mother country. This stage involves the greatest effects on language, this is evident when looking at the new dialects vocabulary loan words are heavily used and cultural terms will continue to be used the organization of the new English dialect will be correct but the accent of foreign speakers will be evident. GREENBAUM, SIDNEY (ed. ) 1996 b. Comparing English worldwide: The international corpus of English. Oxford: Clarendon..