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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Government And The Long Island Sound - 1359 words
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The Long Island Sound The Long Island Sound is a vital resource used by both humans and wildlife. The quality of its water is an issue that affects everyone and everything. Scientific studies and continuous monitoring provide evidence as to what actions need to be taken to improve and restore the water quality. In more ways than one, the United States government has devoted much of its time to ensure the revival and protection of the Long Island Sound. There are many ways to help in the protection of the Long Island Sound. Various government agencies and organizations initiate projects beneficial to the Sound.
The government donates grants and monies for funding for the Long Island Sound. There are also bills and legislation passed by the government, which provides laws protecting the sound. The Long Island Sound Study (LISS) is a partnership devoted in the restoration and protection of the Sound. This partnership involves federal, state, interstate, and local agencies, universities, environmental groups, industry, and the public in a program to protect and restore the health of Long Island Sound. The Long Island Sound Study has seven issues deserving special attention
These issues are low oxygen conditions, otherwise called hypoxia, toxic contamination, pathogen contamination, floatable debris, the impact of these water quality problems and habitat degradation and loss on the health of living resources, public involvement and education, and land use. The LISS is undergoing studies that in hopes will reduce the extent of hypoxia. In order to restore the health of Long Island Sound additional nitrogen reduction is needed. Two major research efforts have provided much of the information on how low oxygen conditions affect living resources in the Sound. The EPA's (Environmental Protections Agencies) Office of Research and Development conducted a study which was the first major research effort. The study used a variety of species of fish, crab, shrimp, lobster, and other crustaceans known to live on the bottom waters of the Long Island Sound were exposed to low levels of oxygen in the laboratory. The effect of different concentration of oxygen on growth and survival was measured.
The second study which provided information on the effects of low oxygen conditions in the Sound was conducted by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP). The CTDEP collected bottom- dwelling fish and invertebrates and compared the quantity of organisms and number of species with the levels of oxygen in the water. Both of these studies confirmed that severe effects occurred whenever levels of oxygen fell below 2.0 mg/l. Large reductions in the numbers and types of aquatic life present were noted. The lab experiments recorded reductions in both growth and increase in death. The Long Island Sound Study is receiving funding for the wastewater treatment facility improvements for the Sound.
The main source of funding comes from the State Revolving Fund Programs. The Environmental Protections Agency, through the federal Clean Water Act, provides financing to support State Revolving Fund Loan Programs. Connecticut uses the capitalization grant from the EPA to leverage with state bond funds to provide grants and low interest loans.New York, Connecticut, and EPA along with the federal Clean Water Act are ensuring enforcement to see a healthier Sound. The provisions of the federal Clean Water Act provide a vehicle for ensuring that nitrogen reduction targets are legally enforceable. A section of the Act (303(d)) requires the identification of a Total Maximum Daily Load for pollutants that will result in the accomplishment of water quality standards.
Once a Total Maximum Daily Load has been established, the act calls for reductions to be allocated to sources so that the load target is met. New York, Connecticut, and EPA will use their authorities to provide an enforceable basis for achieving the nitrogen reduction targets. The EPA has developed a regional marine oxygen criterion that provides a more scientifically valid basis for the development of oxygen standards. The LISS will continue to assess what other kinds of actions will be needed to bring the Sound into full observance with water quality standards. The Long Island Sound Study is not the only organization that is concerned with the health of the Sound. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Regional Offices in New York and Boston and its Long Island Sound Office has provided support in the restoration of the Long Island Sound.
The EPA has provided funding to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and New York Department of Environmental Conservation in assistance of the Long Island Sound Study's Habitat Restoration Initiative. The EPA has agreed to support completion of the Habitat Restoration Strategy in the following six ways. The EPA LIS Office will continue to coordinate the effort, including tracking and reporting on programs toward commitments. The EPA LIS Office has also agreed to support continued public involvement and educational activities on habitat restoration, including the development of fact sheets, pamphlets, and information on its World Wide Web homepage. The EPA will encourage the application of eligible habitat restoration projects for funding under various programs.
An example of this is the CWA Section 319 nonpoint source control program. The EPA will advocate habitat restoration in watershed protection activities around the Sound. The EPA has agreed to provide technical support and promote technology transfer of the program on a nation wide scale. Last but not least, the EPA will encourage the application of eligible habitat restoration projects for funding through Supplemental Environmental Projects. The United States Fish and Wildlife Services (Service) will also provide support for the restoration of coastal habitats associated with the Long Island Sound. The Service will also attempt to match projects or sets of projects with appropriate Service and other related competitive grants programs and work with partners to apply for these grants.
These programs and partners include North American Wetland Conservation Act grants, National Coastal Wetland grants, and National Fish and Wildlife Foundation grants.The United States Fish and Wildlife Services (Service) has its own priority habitats and areas. These include nesting and foraging habitats for colonial waterbirds. These waterbirds especially: the long- legged waders and roseate tern. The Service puts an aim on habitats that are on and adjacent to National Wildlife Refugees, habitats that support federally endangered and threatened species, tidal wetland habitats in the Lower Connecticut River, beach strand habitats, and finally sandplain grasslands. Save the Sound, Inc.
is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the restoration, protection, and appreciation of Long Island Sound and its watershed through education, research, and advocacy. Save the Sound was founded in 1972 and has offices in Stamford, Connecticut and Glen Cove, New York. Save the Sound, Inc. commits to the Long Island Sound in many ways. The Save the Sound, Inc. will serve as an advocate for the Long Island Sound as a member of Restore America's Estuaries, press for appropriate legislation such as the Chafee Estuary Restoration Bill.
Save the Sound will also meet with elected officials in DC, Hartford, Albany, and local governments. Save the Sound is committed to tracking and monitoring legislation. They also agree to encourage adequate funds for restoration and pursue new funding sources. Last but not least for advocacy, the Save the Sound, Inc. will also streamline the permit process for restoration projects.Save the Sound, Inc.
is committed to education and outreach. They will strive to educate any age audience from elementary, middle, and high school faculty and students, municipal/ elected officials, adult general public, to landowners. Save the Sound, Inc. is responsible for organizing public speaking engagements, conducting technical assistance workshops for municipalities and community groups, classroom visits and field trips, and for media outreach such as radio, television, and print. Save the Sound, Inc.
is dedicated to habitat restoration. At the grassroots level, Save the Sound, Inc. has coordinated and assisted habitat restoration projects in Connecticut and New York. It has also assisted Long Island Sound Organizations by building partnerships, locating funds, and providing or locating technical assistance for restoration projects. Save the Sound, Inc. has also published and distributed the Long Island Sound Conservation Blueprint- Building the Case for Habitat Restoration In and Around the Sound (a citizen's guide for habitat restoration).
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