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Sample essay topic, essay writing: An End To Genetic Diseases - 2137 words
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.. at tends to clog the air passage in the lungs and interferes with breathing' (Brown 45). This excess mucus may also interfere with digestion by 'blocking the ducts of the pancreas, preventing digestive juices from reaching the intestines' (CFF). As a result, food passes through the body without being broken down and absorbed, and the patient does not get the proper nourishment (Brown 46). Most cystic fibrosis patients develop lung disease at some time in their life.
'Respiratory complications are the main cause of death of patients with cystic fibrosis' (CFF). Furthermore, cystic fibrosis patients are susceptible to lung infections that are resistant to certain kinds of antibiotics (CFF). This makes the life of the person with the disease miserable. In nature, this disease would not have survived to the extent it has. These respiratory problems could very easily lend themselves to premature death
Antibiotics are used to aid the patient in living. Cloning would stop the transfer of this disease, and there could be carriers only and no children with the disease. One way to eliminate all of these diseases is by cloning. 'Humans are already putting human genes into pigs for organ transplants' (Pence 129). Moreover, since 1987, 'over a thousand have tried and over 50 have received patents for genetically altered animals' (129).
The next step is cloning a human. Cloning is a very controversial subject, so both sides of this issue will be addressed. By cloning, it would be possible to stop the reproduction of these genetic diseases. These diseases are easily detectable through simple tests, and carriers can still have their own children. The reproductive cells can be tested after they are allowed to reproduce until there are eight cells, and then one can be tested without disturbing the rest.
If the cells are all right, those cells will be used. If not, more cells will be taken and tested. The cloning being discussed is nuclear somatic transfer, or NST. Somatic cells are cells of the body, or non-reproductive cells. NST is the process of taking a nucleus of a cell and implanting it into an egg (Copeland and Hamer 116). The egg is then implanted into a woman, who will deliver the child.
This method was used on the lamb in Europe (Lutz 10). In order for this method to be used, it needs to be tested. To test NST, embryo studies must be done. This is difficult to do because 'in March 1997, Clinton made a ban for federal funding of originating a human by NST' (Pence 85). This meant that only privately funded clinics could do the necessary tests, and these clinics do not have as advanced resources as do the federally funded ones.
To avoid the lack of funding, 'scientists are using the breakthroughs that are made in Europe and in Australia' (89) because embryonic testing is allowed and funded there. There are many arguments for and many against cloning. This science is on the forefront, and will remain on the cutting edge without much progress until some of these conflicting issues are resolved. There are many reasons to allow cloning in our society. People have a right to make personal decisions, including childbirth.
Cloning would insure the child would not have any genetic diseases. The decision in the 1972 court case of Eisenstadt vs. Baird stated that 'if the right to privacy means anything, it is the right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted government intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bare or beget a child' (107). The right to have a child is your right, whether you want to bare a child or have one cloned. Secondly, children created by NST will have a better start in life by having a better genetic makeup.
It is possible to eliminate genetic diseases. This would also give the child a better genetic makeup and a better gene pool. Children will have skills, or not lack skills, due to genetic engineering (101-102). This method of creating a human is also very beneficial to infertile couples. If the male is incapable of having children, he can give a nucleus of one of his cells, which will be implanted into the egg. This will let him have a child, even when his sperm is incapable of the task. If the woman is incapable of having a child due to the sperm not implanting in the egg, NST can help (Robinson C12).
'Using NST, sperm can implant outside of the woman's body' (Kolata A3). If it is a problem with her eggs, she can use a donor egg. The egg has no genetic effect on the child, only the nucleus in the egg. The woman could use a donor egg, and implant one of her nuclei into it, having her own child (A3). Today, a method of artificial insemination, called in vitro fertilization, is used.
This is where sperm is inserted into an egg outside of the female's body, and then inserted into her womb (Robinson C12). 'Cloning by NST is more cost effective than in vitro fertilization. NST is also more reliable than in vitro fertilization due to the fact that it uses the eggs of younger women, where as using in vitro they use the woman's egg' (Pence 107). 'The asexual reproduction of NST also has promise for homosexual couples wanting children' of their own, without another biological parent (Kantrowitz 53). Lesbian couples can have their own children by one of them giving the somatic cell, and the other one giving the egg and delivering the child (53). It is possible with NST to have a child with only one biological parent. 'The asexual reproduction of NST has promise for a better race of humans in the future' (Pence 115).
Humans would no longer have to worry about genetic disorders or genetic diseases. Humans would have a more pure gene pool. This would make life better for all humans. On the other hand, the idea of NST has many drawbacks. During the nuclear somatic transfer, problems can occur (131). This has never been tried before on humans. Medicine is changing very fast.
'It is better to use methods that have been tried and true' (123). If the methods that are being used are working, do not change them. Creating a human by NST is not at all necessary to the world, or the United States. Furthermore, 'the technology and science behind this is growing too fast' (123). If everything keeps changing at this speed, our technology will be out of control.
We do not understand what we are doing by creating a human. We do not understand the technology behind it, and it may end up that our technology is ruling us. 'Humanity should not try to control its own destiny' (Lutz 10). Creating a human by NST is too much like playing God. People are making people unnaturally (Copeland and Hamer 112). 'Man can not create, kill, and reproduce itself as it wishes' (Pence 123). It goes against the Bible's teachings that our children are flesh of our flesh and bone of our bones.
It is not wise to tempt fate by playing with something with as much impact on humanity as this does. Changing something as fundamentally necessary to humans as sexual reproduction could have devastating results (123). This 'would totally change humans and what they are. We are not our own creators' (Lutz 10). Cloning 'undermines that fundamental belief in the most powerful and disturbing way possible' (10). Using NST will alter evolution. It will not let nature take its course. Furthermore, parents could get crazy ideas about perfect children, and treat this subject as though they are choosing a house or a car.
Choosing a car is a materialistic decision, whereas having a child is a moral decision. People would be driven to make a super person who is better than everyone else. In nature, '40% of human embryos don't implant. Half of that is due to genetics' (Wilcox 192). There must be a reason the embryo is not implanting.
It is probably a defect that could cause great problems if the child is born (189). In addition, the child will have the chromosomes of one parent, and the 'chromosomes could shorten life expectancies of children from NST' (CHMG). Another problem with the chromosomes is that they 'could be remolded and changed ' (CHMG) during the process of implanting the nucleus, along with other 'mistakes in the genetic transfer of children born from NST' (Pence 131). One such mistake is that the parent's DNA may not imprint correctly (CHMG). That could cause major physical and mental problems.
The children of NST also 'run a risk of fetal development problems' (Pence 131). Fetal development problems could range from miscarriage to severe birth defects. One more major problem is that 'NST will decrease diversity in the gene pool. This would cause a greater prejudice against the disabled'(134). Along with greater prejudice, necessary skills will be lost. 'You never know what skills you will need, so the gene pool needs to be as big as possible. This will eventually cause people to lose their individuality' (Lenderberg 52).
People have survived many generations of cross breeding, which has spread deadly genetic diseases. Modern medicine is the catalyst for these genetic diseases. Modern medicine has allowed them to thrive in our society, and denied nature's fundamental course of eliminating the weak. The weak have been allowed to survive, and medicine is advancing, spawning new hope for eliminating these diseases. Cloning is a very realistic possibility. Due to the severity of the diseases, extreme measures are necessary.
Some people with genetic diseases suffer nearly their entire life, and must visit a doctor regularly. The rest of them die. Also, because medicine allowed these diseases to get out of hand, medicine needs to terminate the problem. Our society is thriving even though it is suffering many hardships. Cloning may relieve several of these problems. Cloning aids infertile couples, as well as slowing the spread of genetic diseases.
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