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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Self-concept Of Father-absent Children In Middle Childhood - 1862 words
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CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION Man's individuality embodies numerous traits and self-concept holds the predominant of these traits according to Rogers. It helps the person understand personality and social development, for it is through the developing self-concept that man form increasingly stable picture of their selves, partly, reflected by others in their surroundings (Craig;1996,p.367). As the person interacts with his environment, such as peer groups, school, community and most especially the family, these concepts are constructed. Many developmentalists believe that infants are born without a sense of self (Shaffer, 1989), therefore, we can say that we develop our self-image as we continuously grow. Families are believed to be the first, the closest, and most influential social group in the child's life. They provide children with the definition of right and wrong, the patterns of behaviors, the expectations and the evaluations of actions on which children base their own ideas (Craig, 1996). It is in the family where a child spends a great portion of his life mainly during the formative years.
It is from the family that he receives his earliest training in proper behavior. Thus, it is the family which plays the major role in the development of his self-image (Medina, 1991). As a child grow, he begins to realize who he really is and what he is and at the same time aware of his capability. The person's general view of self is made up of other, more specific concepts, including the nonacademics sefl-concept, self-concept in English, and self-concept in mathematics. This self-concept evolves through constant self-evaluation indifferent situation (Shavelson & Bolus, 1992). Children and adolescents are continually comparing their performance with their own standards and with the performance of peer and also gauge the verbal and nonverbal reactions of significant people. Moreover, a harmonious home environment can create confidence in ones own perspective of himself because it provides not only a place of residence but also an identity of mutual security and support (Sevilla, 1989)
However, through the changing nature of the family structure, there are broken families and marital dissolution. Single parent families, usually are fatherless, continuously growing up which affect both their children's psychological health and intellectual development. Children commonly experience anger, fears, and phobias, loneliness, conflicts and shaken sense of identity (Henslin, 1992). With these, questions were raised whether the development of a fatherless child would affect their school performance. Whether self-concept can be associated with their academic achievement.
For this reason, the researcher aims to find out whether there is a relationship between the Self-concept and English with Reading and Language and Math Achievement of a Father-absent children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys.Statement of the Problem This study aims to know and correlate the Self-concept with the Math and English Achievement of Father-Absent Children in Middle Childhood of Two Exclusive Schools for Boys, namely: Ateneo Grade School and La Salle Greenhils.Specifically, the researcher seeks to identify the following;1. What is the Self-concept of Father -Absent Children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys?2. What is the English Achievement of Father-Absent Children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys?3. What is the Math Achievement of Father-Absent Children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys?4. Is there a significant relationship between the Self-concept and the Math and English Achievement of Father-Absent Children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys?HypothesisThe researcher advances the alternative hypothesis that there is significant relationship between the self-concept and the Math and English Achievement of Father-Absent Children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys, namely: Ateneo Grade School and La Salle Greenhills.
Significance of the StudyChildren cannot escape the positive or negative implication of the twist and turns of family. They greatly affected by these changes they undergo. It may or may not be detrimental to them but the primary concerns here is how they would become in the future. For this reason, the researcher was motivated to give rise to this kind of study that would enable parents to understand the effect of family environment to their children. They may learn to give importance in raising their child well to make them a better person in the future.
Teachers will benefit from this study especially those who teach in exclusive schools for boys because in one way or another they can foresee the effect of father-absence to students performance in class and how the development of the self-concept affect their academic achievement. The date gathered from this study may greatly facilitate the guidance counselors job in determining whether the development of the self-concept of a child is a big factor in measuring the performance of students in class. In effect, they could develop a program on self-awareness to sustain the positive self-concept. Finally, the subjects per se would identify their self-concept as well as their level of achievement and would help them strive harder for better improvement.Theoretical Conceptual FrameworkFreud describes middle childhood as a period he called latency. He believed that, for most children, the period from age 7 to 12 was a time during which family jealousy and turmoil was less important or latent.
Consequently, most children could turn their emotional energies toward peer relationships, creative efforts, and learning the culturally prescribed tasks in the school or community. Erickson, expanding on Freud's idea, believed that the central focus of middle childhood was the psycho-social conflict or industry versus inferiority. Erickson states that during this stage, much of the child's time and energy is directed toward acquiring new knowledge and skills. They are better able to channel their energies into learning, problem solving, and achievement. When children are able to achieve success, they integrate a sense of industry into their self-image.
They realize that hard work produces desire outcomes and continue to try to master their environment. (Craig;1996,p.365)Research ParadigmThe independent variable is the Self-Concept of Father-Absent Children in Middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys,namely: Ateneo Grade School and La Salle, Greenhills and the dependent variables are the English with Languag and Reading and Math Achievements.Scope and LimitationThis is a correlational study that aims to find out the relationship of the Self-Concept and the English with Reading and Language and Math Achievement of Father-Absent Children in middle childhood of two exclusive schools for boys,namely: Ateneo Grade School and La Salle Greenhills.The reseacher will limit the study to all elementary students with father absence at Ateneo Grade School and La Salle Greenhills, in middle childhood whose age range from 7 to 12 years old. They should have at least an average Intelligence Quotient based on their school profile and generally came from the middle class family. The subjects will be selected from the mentioned school for boys and are enrolled for the school year 2004-2005. The researcher will use of a self-constructed questionnaire to identify children whose father is absent. To measure their Self-Concept, the Pasao Self-concept Scale will be given.
The data for their Math and English Achievement will be based on their first grading grades that will be requested from the school. The result of the study are only applicable to the said subjects.Definition of Terms:1. Self-concept - It refers to our conscious or unconscious perceptions and feeling about self with regards to our worth as a person (Tan, 1991)- Operationally, it is the self as perceived by the individual. It is also refers to the scores on the self-concept dimensions of the Pasao Self-concept Scale.2. Middle Childhood - It refers to a period of latency as described by Freud, a time during which family turmoil were less important or latent (Craig, 1996)- In this study, it refers to the age range of subjects, form 7 to 12 years old. 3. Father-Absence - It refers to the father being absent in one set of the families (Santrock, 1993).- Operationally, it refers to the absence of the father from home due to marital dissolution.4. Math Achievement - It refers to the specified level on the mathematical ability in scholastic or academic work as evaluated by teachers, by standard list or by both (Woolfolk, 1995)- In this study, it refers to the math grade given by teachers during the first grading period.5. English Achievement - IT refers to the specified level on the verbal ability in scholastic and academic work as evaluated by teacher, by standard list of by both (Woolfork, 1995).- In this study, it refers to the language and reading grade given by teachers during the first grading period.6. Marital Dissolution - It refers to a special form of dissolution, may take the form of suicide, murder of spouse, annulment, separation (ranging from psychological withdrawal to legal separation) and finally, divorce (Sills).- In this study, it refers to the disruption of family structure because of the separation of the parents during their children's formative years.
CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The related literatures and studies relevant with this study which have been gathered by the researcher are presented in this chapter.Conceptual Literature The parent is the very first significant person in the life of the child. They are the firs to give the child love, warmth and affection. They are the first to whom the child turns for guidance and support. They are the first with whom the child has close emotional attachment and feeling of belonging (Medina, 1991). Of all the socializing institutions, the family is the most influential, shaping personality, character, and human potential for intelligent thought and self-fulfillment.
It provides not only a place of residence, but also, identity, security and assurance of mutual support. (Sevilla, 1989). As children grow older, they form more accurate and complex picture of the physical, intellectual and personality character of themselves. They attribute increasingly specific characteristics of themselves, leading to a more accurate and complex pictures of themselves and others. This refinement of self-image occurs on two-globally and specifically - in the physical, social and academic domains.
(Marsh, Craven & Debus, 1991). The breakup of the family affects the children on a number of ways. We have seen that both parents have strong effects on the development of their children; yet a parental conflict is primary responsible for children's lowered sense of well-being. When parents fight, children develop fears and anger. They are especially vulnerable when they are forced to choose between one parent and the other. (Amato, 1993).
Moreover, many children coming form disruptive family experienced a sense of shaken world in which the usual indicators had changed place of disappeared. For several children, these changed markers were particularly related to their sense of who they were and who they would become in the future. (Henslin, 1992). The first two years after the divorce seem to be the most difficult period for both boys and girls. During this time children may have problems in school, lose or gain an unusual amount of weight, develop difficulties sleeping and so on. They blame themselves for the breakup of their family of hold unrealistic hopes for a reconciliation (Hetherington, 1989).
On the other hand, not all children of divorce exhibit problems. The situation in which divorced youngster were doing fine had one characteristic in common: there was a third party. Somebody acted as the third leg of ...
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