Applying Motivation and Emotion Theories in an Analysis of Scrooge's Behaviour Motivation and Emotion Theories 2 In the past many theories have been put forth in an attempt to understand the motivations of an individuals behaviour and the emotions involved. According to Reber & Reber (2001) emotional states tend to have motivational properties and the elements of a motivation will often have emotional ties. In addition, theorists have identified that physiological structures usually appear to exist in a motivational and emotional context (Heilman & Bowers, 1990; Reber, 2001; Strongman, 1973; Weiner, 1985). Some of the more well known ideas put forth by theorists include locus of control, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and opponent process theory. Whilst some of the concepts concerning emotions are the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory and the cognitive arousal theory. One way of understanding how these particular theories work is to apply them to the motivations and often accompanying emotions of an individual, in this case, by the use of a fictional character such as Ebinizer Scrooge from Charles Dickens' 'The Christmas Carol.' Developed by the theorist Julian Rotter, locus of control refers to a set of beliefs about the relationship between behaviour and the subsequent occurrence of rewards and punishments (Hjelle & Zeigler, 1992; Reber, 2001; Weiner, 1985).
Links have been found between locus of control and behaviour patterns in a number of different areas. According to Hjelle & Ziegler (1992), those individuals with an internal locus of control are inclined to take responsibility for their actions, are not easily influenced by the opinions of others, are generally confident in their abilities and ultimately believe they have control over their own outcomes. Those with an external locus of control, by comparison, are readily influenced by the opinions of others, tend to blame outside circumstances for their mistakes and credit their successes to luck rather that to their own efforts (Phares, 1978, & Strickland, 1977, as Motivation and Emotion Theories 3 cited in Hjelle & Zeigler, 1992; Weiner, 1985). Weiner argues that locus of control is conceived as one determinant of the amount of success one will experience in life, this being supported by Phares (1976, 1978) as cited in Hjelle & Ziegler (1992) who goes further to add that those with external tendencies have a lower self- esteem and a higher anxiety level. Taking note of these characteristics, Scrooge's levels concerning locus of control can be determined throughout his life. However, as Hjelle and Ziegler (1992) assert: The construct should be thought of as a continuum bounded on one end by external and on the other by internal, with peoples beliefs located at all points in between, mostly in the middle.
Keeping this in mind, we can measure locus of control. In his early 20's, Scrooge had a fianc'e whom he adored, success in all his ventures and a loyal friend, Bob Marley, as his business partner. He was respected by his peers and had a bright future to look forward to. At this point it could be said his locus of control was balanced, possibly leaning towards a more internal locus by evidence of his success and general outlook of the future.
However, after Scrooge's fianc'e left him for another man he became bitter at his abandonment, withdrawn to the point that he began to devote every moment to his business, as well as indicating a generally lowered self-esteem. From this evidence, using the characteristics of locus of control it could be said Scrooge is either more external or more internal- the lowered self-esteem and bitterness would indicate a sense of little control in the events of his life. Yet, by comparison, he is highly controlling to the point of obsession in maintaining his business- this control being an attribute of internal locus. Next Scrooge's business partner, Marley dies, leaving Scrooge full ownership of the business.
The loss of Marley, seems to push Scrooge towards an internal locus with a continuing strong control of business and a renewal in self-esteem in that he realise's Motivation and Emotion Theories 4 he is capable in maintaining the business single-handed ly. When Christmas arrives once again Scrooge's locus shifts due to loneliness he admits to resigning to the fact that this is the way he will be from now on- alone. This resignation indicates a belief of fate influencing his position which is one of the traits of an external locus. Also a trait of an external locus of control is an individual's suggestibility involving others' opinions. In this case, Scrooge quickly comes to rely on the opinions of the Christmas spirits that visit him. As illustrated by Scrooge's continual change in locus, it can be seen that an individual's locus range does indeed change- with keeping this in mind their positions can be roughly measured.
The opponent process theory of motivation was developed mainly by Richard Solomon, and it is in a sense a homeostatic theory of emotion. Suggested is that every emotion generates an opposing emotion that acts to control it, existing after the original emotion has dissipated (Mook, 1996; Reber & Reber, 2001). And with this dissipation, a drive to reach the initial emotion is created. An example, illustrating this theory is how an individual's luxuries soon turn into necessities. In order to reach the initial effect the object in question needs to be increased.
This theory can be applied to Scrooge's need for money. Earlier in life Scrooge's business was successful enough that he could live in luxury, and for awhile that luxury was enough. However, even after Marley died, leaving him a mansion and full ownership of the business (and therefore more money), Scrooge began to push the business more in order to be profitable. Additionally, he became so tight-fisted with money he refused to be charitable towards family, employees and street beggars in order to save. This constant drive for more money supports the opponent process theory for motivation. Motivation and Emotion Theories 5 The motivation of an individual can be either extrinsic or intrinsic and the source of their motivation will determine this.
Extrinsic motivations originate from an external source, examples being money or the approval of others, while intrinsic motivation comes from within the person, such as the enjoyment of the individuals particular action (Atkinson, 1974; Csikzentmihalyi & Rath ude, 1993; Deckers, 2001; Weiner, 1985). Scrooge was more intrinsically motivated towards the maintenance of business when he was younger as he demonstrated a general enjoyment in business ventures. However extrinsic motivations were also present: success and money. Later in life, with no real intrinsic motivation evident anymore, Scrooge seems focus on extrinsic motivation: ensuring the business is making money and admitting he is only there because of a duty he feels he owes Marley. When asked to make a donation to charity, Scrooge asks "How will I benefit?" (Dickens, p 46.
1843. ) After the spirits of Christmas convince Scrooge that he must change his ways by threat of a lonely death, Scrooge endeavours to help others. This threat of a lonely death would be an extrinsic motivation but soon Scrooge enjoys the happiness he brings to others, thus developing a motivation that is intrinsic. According to Deci & Ryan, 1985, as cited in Deckers (2001) external motivation can often lead to an internal motivation being initiated, and in Scrooges case, that has occurred. Developed by C. G.
Lange and William James, the James- Lange theory of emotion argues that "that the bodily changes follow direct the perceptions of the fact and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is emotion" (William James as cited in Reber & Reber, 2001, p. 238). In addition to asserting patterns of physiological arousal are followed by emotion, this theory goes further to suggest the idea that behaviour provides feedback and informs an individual of the Motivation and Emotion Theories 6 emotion being experienced (Deckers, 2001; Reber & Reber, 2001; Strongman, 1973). There have been however, criticisms of this theory, as some literature highlights by indication of lack of evidence when research has been undertaken to concretely prove the points argued (Deckers, 2001; Heller, 1990; Reber & Reber, 2001; Strongman, 1973). The James-Lange theory of emotion can be applied to the behaviour of Scrooge when he first sees the dead Marley's face watching him on the door knocker outside his mansion. Detailing Scrooge's reaction, Dickens (1943) wrote: "To say that he was not startled, or that his blood was not conscious of the terrible sensation to which it had been a stranger from infancy, would be untrue" (p.
56). Going further Dickens also mentions a quickening of Scrooges heart and the crawling sensation of butterflies beneath his skin. This experience of Scrooge's underscores the enormous part physiological arousal plays in emotion, as well as being an excellent example of physiological arousal presenting itself before the emotion (in this case, fear). Nevertheless, this same encounter of Scrooge's can also be utilised to apply the theory of cognitive arousal.
The cognitive arousal theory of emotion originated from a number of different theorists and argues that though physiological arousal is evident and an integral part of the theory, to experience an emotion there must be a cognitive interpretation of the event (Deckers, 2001; Reber & Reber, 2001; Strongman, 1973). That is, an emotion will not eventuate if an individual does not experience some type of physiological arousal followed by recognition of the cause of arousal. As described by Dickens previously, there was evidently an occurrence of physiological arousal in Scrooge's encounter with Marley's ghost, but in order for Scrooge to feel Motivation and Emotion Theories 7 the emotion of fear he would have to have recognised and understood the significance of what he was seeing. This encounter with the ghost was definitely out of the ordinary and he displays his fear by a cry of fright.
From this experience, the application of the cognitive arousal theory and the James-Lange theory to Scrooge's behaviour highlights the similarities as well as the major difference in these two theories of emotion. Another theory is the Cannon- Bard theory. The Cannon- Bard Theory was primarily generated by Walter Cannon, with the majority of the experimental work separately carried out by Bard. According to Cannon (1927, p. 119) as cited in Strongman (1973): "the peculiar quality of emotion is added to simple sensation when the thalamic processes are aroused." So this theory asserts that the integration of emotion is controlled by the thalamus which sends excitation patterns to the cortex, while the hypothalamus controls the behaviour making an individual experience the physiological arousal and the emotion in unison. Cannon and Bards theory has been criticised by other theorists of emotion, but it is generally more concerned in describing the purpose of physiological arousal in emotion rather than actually explaining the behaviour of an emotion (Deckers, 2001; Heilman & Bowers, 1990; Strongman, 1973).
In this way, the Cannon- Bard theory states that the purpose of physiological is actually to provide the individual energy for the response to a stimulus, and in doing so uses the flight of fight response to support this claim. After the initial encounter with Marley's ghost, Scrooge goes to his bed chamber, locks his door, and falls asleep in his chair. After dozing for awhile, he is woken by a loud bang on his door. Startled, he sits upright, scared, tense and ready Motivation and Emotion Theories 8 to move quickly if he finds the need. Then with another loud bang Scrooge's jumps to his feet, and then edges his way to the door, constantly on guard, to see who it could be. Now, Scrooge being startled by the loud noise and his tenseness would be signs of flight of fight reaction occurring.
While keeping the Cannon- Bard theory in mind, it could be argued Scrooge experienced the arousal of his thalamus and instantaneously his hypothalamus controlled his behaviour causing him to be scared. After his encounter with Marley's ghost already, he could easily have expected something to of been a threat outside his door. Though Scrooge's behaviour does indeed illustrate the premises of this theory, the other two theories, cognitive arousal theory and the James-Lange theory, could also be applied to explain Scrooge's behaviour. And here lies the weakness: each of these emotional theories are only theoretical and are, at present, too easily discounted by the others. Using three of the more well known theories of motivation, the locus of control theory, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theory and the opponent process theory, and the three more well known theories of emotion, the James-Lange theory, the cognitive arousal theory, and the Cannon- Bard theory, a selection of Scrooge's behaviour's concerning his motivations and emotions have been analysed. From this analysis, each theory has been defined and illustrated, as well as the presentation of evidence to support each theory.
Furthermore, each theory through the analysis of Scrooge has had its strengths and weaknesses demonstrated. While these theories do indeed aid in explaining and individual's behaviour, some of the arguments these theorists make can be manipulated too easily in looking for an explanation. Motivation and Emotion Theories 9 References Atkinson, J. W.
(1974). The mainsprings of achievement-oriented activity. In J. W.
Atkinson, & J. O. Raynor (Eds. ), Motivation and Achievement (pp.
13-41). Washington, D. C: John Wiley & Sons. Csikszentmihalyi, M.
, & Rath unde, K. (1993). The measurement of flow in everyday life: Toward a theory of emergent motivation. In J. E. Jacobs (Ed.
), Developmental Perspectives on Motivation (pp. 57-97). United States of America: University of Nebraska Press. Deckers, L. (2001). Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental (pp.
282-290), Sydney: Allyn & Bacon. Dickens, C. (1843). The Christmas Books: A Christmas Carol/ The Chimes. London: Penguin. Heller, w.
(1990). The Neuropsychology of emotion: Developmental patterns and implication of Psychopathology. In N. L. Stein, B.
Leventhal, & T. Trabasso (Eds. ) Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion (pp. 167- 211). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Heilman, K.
M. & Bowers, D. (1990). Nueropsychological studies of emotional change induced by right and left hemispheric lesions. In N.
L. Stein, B. Leventhal, & T. Trabasso (Eds. ) Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion (pp.
97- 113). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hjelle, L. A. , & Ziegler, D. J.
(1992). Personality theories: basic assumptions, research, and applications. (3 rd ed. , pp. 381-383; 352-355). Sydney: McGraw- Hill.
Mook, D. G. (1996). Motivation: The organization of action (2 nd ed.
, pp. 273-281). New York: W. W.
Norton Reber, E. , & Reber, A. S (2001). The penguin dictionary of psychology (3 rd ed. ) London: Penguin Strongman, K. T.
(1973). The psychology of emotion. Great Britain: John Wiley & Sons. Weiner, B.
(1985). Human Motivation. West Hanover, Massachusetts: Springer- Verlag New York Inc.