Effective classrooms have a positive and purposeful atmosphere, where students and teachers feel valued, and work together in a supportive and safe environment. The effective classroom is one where students learn, and teachers help them to do so without spending much of their time managing 'problem' or 'difficult' behaviour. However, this is not an easy task, and at one time or another teachers may experience difficulty in maintaining a harmonious working environment. The main focus of this chapter is to explore ways of establishing and sustaining a purposeful, working atmosphere in the classroom. Behaviour management and maintaining discipline is clearly a concern for teachers when seeking to establish themselves in a new school context or with a new class, even for those who have plenty of successful experience. For short-term supply teachers, the challenge is increased by the number of different classes they may encounter on a daily or weekly basis.

There is no shortage of advice in relation to behaviour management and there are marked differences of opinion across the teaching profession about behaviour and discipline in schools. What is certain is that there is no 'right' way to manage all situations. The learning climate you create is crucial. Students are affected not only by the physical environment which surrounds them, but also by your own expectations and attitudes. Remember that small things matter. ICT must become an integral and natural part of the learning process...

ICT is used to improve access to learning for pupils with a diverse range of individual needs, including those with SEN and disabilities. ICT is used as a tool for whole-school improvement. ICT is used to enable learning to take place more easily beyond the bounds of the formal school organisation and outside the school day. ICT capabilities are developed as key skills essential for participation in today's society and economy.

There is physiological evidence that although stress may initially galvani se humans for action, it interferes with thinking. The difference for the learner is between what can be defined as anxiety-provoking stress and what can be defined as commitment-engaging challenge. a task perceived as involving a reasonable demand of knowledge, skill and effort is a positive challenge; . a task perceived as imposing impossible demands is a negative stress. Somewhere along a continuum of demand placed upon the individual learner, the sense of challenge gradually transforms into stress.

There are three related problems for the teacher in trying to set work to maximis e challenge - and minimise stress - for the learner: . the difference between reasonable and unreasonable demands of knowledge, skill and effort can sometimes be quite small; . the cross-over line at which this happens varies between individuals; . some learners perceive almost anything that they do not immediately grasp or recognise as highly likely to produce failure. The first two problems require careful differentiation and checking of how students are coping. The third problem requires the teacher to build up the individual learner's confidence in his or her own capability.

For such learners, almost everything asked of them can seem to be a potential threat. On the basis of experience, they have come to the point where, at least when it comes to learning in school, they suffer from a lack of self-esteem and self-efficacy and this leads to the further lack of motivation. Optimise the interaction between you and your students by ensuring that your questioning is as effective as possible. Questioning, either by the teacher or between the students, is a crucial part of review following guided practice or at the end of the lesson.