In the United States of America, the presidential election takes place every four years, on the first Tuesday of November . Most people believe they are directly voting for the presidential candidate, and the person with the most popular votes will win the election. However, instead of voting for the presidential candidate, people are voting for the electors, individuals who vote in the Electoral College. Moreover, the total electoral vote, not the popular vote, actually determines the winner of the United States presidential election. The election of the year 2000 is a perfect example of the Electoral College. President George W.
Bush won the presidential election of the year 2000 with more electoral votes, not popular votes. Before the presidential election of year 2000, most people pay no or little attention to the electoral votes, because most people do not understand the concept of the Electoral College, or even did not know there the different between popular votes and Electoral College. Before continue to discuss about the Electoral College, we must first understand the history of Electoral College and the concept of how does it work. The Electoral College system was established in Article II, section I, of the U. S. Constitution.
The Electoral College was established by the founding fathers as a compromise between election of the president by Congress and election by popular vote. The electors  are a popularly elected body chosen by the States and the District of Columbia on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The Electoral College is a group of electors chosen by politicians and their party members within the state. On the Election Day, if the party wins the popular votes, those electors of the party will represent the state to vote for the presidential candidate.
The votes made by the electors are the electoral votes, and those are the votes to determine the result of the presidential election. The intention of the Electoral College was to find the most efficient method to represent the majority of the population, because United States is a republic form of government. To better understand the Electoral College, let us agree on a few definitions. Democracy is defined as the people create a form of government, either directly or through elected representatives, majority rule. A republic is similar to a democracy, but instead of a governing body of elected representatives, there is a president appointed as the titular head. With both government types combined, and with the governing body broken into three separate parts, assurance is made that no one person can take over the entire governing body.
Therefore, instead of each state have the same number of electors, the number of senators, plus the number of House of Representatives, which depends on the population of the state, makes up number of electors of a state. That is why well-populated states such as California, 54 electoral votes, Texas, 32 electoral votes, and New York, 33 electoral votes,  are highly important to presidential candidates because they have so many electoral votes. In order to win in a presidential election, a presidential candidate must obtain majority, over 50%, of electoral votes. Originally, each state was free to choose its electors as it pleased. Today, the political parties put together a list of electors in each state pledged to their presidential candidate and equal to the number of the state's electoral votes. When the state's citizens vote for a candidate, they are actually voting for the entire list of electors who have affirmed support for that candidate and his vice presidential running mate.
Since 1800 s, four presidents had won by electoral votes, instead of popular votes. Many people argue that rather than the Electoral College system; the United States should hold the presidential elections as a direct election. In other words, the winner is the candidate who receives the most votes, because there are two problems to the current Electoral College system. First, a president can be elected to office even if it is not what the people want. Another problem is that the system for electing a president if no electoral majority being reached.
Should the Electoral College be abolished? Since the Electoral College no longer needs to serves the same purpose that it did when it was founded. It was intended to be a check on the power of the voter. If we live in a democracy, why do we need a check on the voter? It is the same as the government let us to vote for president, yet the result not necessary has to follow what we voted. Bibliography 'Electoral College.' Congressional Digest Oct 1992. Electoral Voting Strength of States, web Michael J. When No Majority Rules.
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