Twelfth Night Comedy in Other Writings While Great Expectations and Gulliver's Travels were not written as comedy, humor is seen in them. The comedy in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night can be related to the comedy in those writings, although Shakespeare used a variety of comedic techniques, not used in either Great Expectations or Gulliver's Travels. The comedy in Twelfth Night varies greatly from the comedy in Great Expectations and Gulliver's Travels at times. Irony is a common comedic element seen in all three works. Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels is commonly known as a satire, therefore it uses improbable irony as a tool. The misfortune, ridiculousness and contradict of Gulliver's adventures is funny.
For instance, he, an almighty human, was tied down and restrained by people the size of his finger. In Twelfth Night irony is also used. For example, Olivia fell in love with the woman, viola, dressed as a man, Cesario, who was to woo Olivia, for the duke. It is an unexpected, contradicting turn, mostly because of the couple's gender, but also because of the going-ons during which it happened.
In the following Viola finds out of Olivia's love: "Viola: I left no ring with her. What means this lady? Fortune forbid my outside have not charmed her! She made good view of me, indeed so much That sure methought her eyes had lost her tongue, For she did speak in starts distractedly. She loves me, sure! The cunning of her passion Invites me in this churlish messenger." (Shakespeare, Act 2, Scene 2, Lines 15 and 20) The love triangle Shakespeare uses to twist the plot is ironic. In Great Expectations is the main comedic tool, although it is not a satire. It is ironic how Estella, who was out to break Pip's heart at the beginning, has her own heart broken and seems to reconcile with him in the end, appearing to intend to never again part, "I took her hand in mine, and we went out of the ruined place; and as the morning mists had risen long ago when I first left the forge, so the evening mists were rising now, and in all the broad expanse of tranquil light they showed to me, I saw no shadow of another parting form her." (Dickens, 516) Because common aspects from Shakespeare's writing can be seen in Great Expectations and Gulliver's Travels, and similar comedic techniques were used in the writings, the works' comedy can be compared and contrasted with the play, Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night was an excellent play by William Shakespeare.
Although there are many opinions about the play's nature, it is commonly seen as an influential comedy. In the play, two twins are shipwrecked on the coast of an ideal country, like Disneyland, called Illyria. They are separated, neither knowing the other is alive. The female, Viola, pretends to be a male page and works for the duke Orsino.
Her job is to woo the lady he likes, Olivia. Viola is wooing for Orsino, pretending to be Cesario, and Olivia falls in love with her! Meanwhile, a man called Antonio is helping her twin, Sebastian. In the end Viola and Sebastian meet, the Duke marries Viola, and Sebastian marries Olivia. There are many comedic aspects of this play, one is Maria's letter.
Maria, a helper of Olivia, writes a letter to trick Malvolio into making a fool of himself by making him think Olivia likes him. Maria's letter says: "If this fall into thy hand, revolve. In my stars I am above thee, but be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon 'em.
Thy Fates open their hands. Let thy blood and spirit embrace them. And, to inure thyself to what thou art like to be, cast thy humble slough and appear fresh. Be opposite with a kinsman, surly with servants. Let thy tongue tang arguments of state. Put thyself into they trick of singularity.
She thus advises thee that sighs for thee. Remember who commanded thy yellow stockings and wished to see thee ever cross-garter ed. I say, remember. Go to, thou art made, if thou de sir " st to be so; if not, let me see thee a steward still, the fellow of servants, and not worthy to touch Fortune's fingers. Farewell. She that alter services with thee, The Fortunate Unhappy" (Shakespeare, Act 2, Scene 5, Lines 125-140) While irony can be seen in Twelfth Night, many other types are used.
In this play, Shakespeare is known for using almost every comedy type. He uses crude humor, represented in Maria, almost portrayed as a whore. He sometimes uses this humor invoking, sexuality and drunkenness. Another common humor technique used by Shakespeare was wit. In Twelfth Night he uses wit. Usually wit helps develop the character and help you get a sense for what part they act in the play.
Wit is used as comic relief by Maria here:" Maria: Now, sir, thought is free. I pray you, bring your hand to the buttery-bar and let it drink. Sir Andrew: Wherefore, sweetheart? What's your metaphor? Maria: It's dry, sir. Sir Andrew: Why, I think so. I am not such an ass, but I can keep my hand dry. But what's your jest? Maria: A dry jest, sir.
Sir Andrew: Are you full of them? Maria: Ay, sir, I have them at my fingers' ends. Marry, now I let go your hand, I am barren." (Shakespeare, Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 55-70) These forms of comedy are very different then the ones used in Great Expectations and Gulliver's Travels. Through all these forms of comedy, however, Shakespeare infers that humans are quite selfish. It occasionally portrays the human race as idiots, but mostly shows us as witty, conniving things out for the good of ourselves only.
All Viola cares about is protecting herself as a male and not being discovered, while Antonio is worried about his money, Orsino his personal happiness, and Olivia her grief. None of them have concern for others. While Antonio does lend his money to Sebastian, he quickly wants it back. Although Viola reveals herself in the end, only under safety, Orsino simply changes his taste, and Olivia decides not to be sad. Certainly, Twelfth Night is a great comedy that truly reveals some of the selfish sides of human nature. Lemuel Gulliver is doctor, traveling around the seas in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels.
He goes many places, like Lilliput, where small people enslave him. After breaking free, he adventures again and lands in Brobdingnag, after a shipwreck. Here, he is used by giants as a circus 'money-maker' by the farmer who finds him. The farmer then sells him to the court. He is continued to be looked after by the farmer's daughter.
After accidentally being carried off by a seagull, he eventually ends up in La puta, a land filled with academics and theoreticians. After leaving he is mutinied by a ship he was captain of, he lands in a place ruled by horses, who were conscious like humans, they were called Houyhnhnms. In Gulliver's Travels irony is used as a source of comedy. In Gulliver's first adventure, h plans to bring back tiny Lilliputian animals and make money off of them. "The short time I continued in England, I made a considerable profit by showing my cattle to many persons of quality, and others: And before I began my second voyage, I sold them for six hundred pounds." (Swift, 59) Ironically, this is exactly what happens to him in the land of the giants, "My master alighted at an Inn which he used to frequent; and after consulting a while with the Inn-keeper, and making some necessary preparations, he hired the cry er, to give notice through the town, of a strange creature (Gulliver) to be seen at the sign of the Green Eagle, in every part of the body resembling an human creature; could speak several words, and perform an hundred diverting tricks." (Swift, 76). Truly, irony is a large part of Gulliver's Travels.
Shakespeare's influence can be seen in Gulliver's Travels. In Twelfth Night Shakespeare, gave Olivia, a woman, the largest influence on everyone in the play, she had the real power. Similarly, Gulliver would have died if the farmer's daughter, Glumdalclitch, hadn't cared for him and saved him form her father's plan to work Gulliver to death. Here, the woman in the book had the power over life, and death, just as Olivia had power over the characters in Twelfth Night. Also, Gulliver's adventure is always initiated by a sea voyage, just as Twelfth Night's adventure began when the twins' boat crashed. Jonathan Swift while being influenced by Shakespeare was trying to influence society himself.
Gulliver's Travels is a satire. Allan Geda lof, explains how Gulliver views himself as a great man. Hw looks at European society and sees it as all-powerful, a wonderful civilization. What Jonathan Swift has to say about human nature is that humans, Europe especially is not all knowing and best in everything. As a matter of fact, Swift mocks humans' power over animals in his last adventure to the Houyhnhnms, here he shows that even that power isn't ours. Cleary, forms of comedy and satire are seen in Gulliver's Travels.
In Great Expectations, Pip is a young boy aspiring to be in a higher class, he eventually gets there, but only unknowingly through the help of a convict, surprisingly. Estella, is a girl he loves in a higher class, who is raised to be awful to men and then breaks Pip's heart. Pip goes on a journey truly showing human arrogance as he turns from a young, innocent child to an arrogant young man forgetting his past friends. Dickens obviously emphasizes human arrogance and tendency to think themselves above others for bad reasons in this novel.
It being the only kind of humor used in this book, irony is common. For example, Mrs. Joe, is the head of the household, she controls everything, (yet again referring to influence from Shakespeare about women being in control) yet, she is still referred to as Mrs. Joe, "I knew Mrs. Joe's housekeeping to be of the strictest kind, and that my larcenous researches might find nothing available in the safe." Miss Havisham still provides more irony. She is very bitter and hateful about the event that happened on her wedding day, yet she constantly forces herself to be reminded of it, "There was a clock in the outer wall of this house.
Like the clock in Miss Havisham's room, and like Miss Havisham's watch, it has stopped at twenty minutes to nine." (Dickens, 83). With Miss Havisham, Dickens takes the opportunity to point out how humans tend to dwell in the past and how doing that prevents future. This is also seen in Twelfth Night with Orsino dwelling on Olivia. Another idea Great Expectations has in common with Twelfth Night is the general plot. The book's general theme can be seen as influence from Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, when Malvolio was invoked by Maria's letter, he expected Olivia to be interested in him.
"Olivia: God comfort thee! Why doubt thou smile so, and kiss they hand so off? Maria: How do you, Malvolio? Malvolio: At your request! Yes, nightingales answer daws! Maria: Why appear you with this ridiculousness before my lady? Malvolio: 'Be not afraid of greatness.' 'Twas well writ. Olivia: what meanest thou by that, Malvolio?" (Shakespeare, Act 3, Scene 4, Lines 25 and 30) Clearly, Great Expectations uses irony and has traits influenced by Shakespeare. Shakespeare's Twelfth Night offers comedy in every scene. It has obviously influenced some of today's literature and common comedic aspects can by seen in all three works. Each novel clearly has human insight to offer, all true is certain circumstances. Certainly, Great Expectations and Gulliver's Travels has been influenced by Shakespeare's writing..