Introduction: A) Broad discussion of topics: Discuss Kristin's thesis 1. Evolution and understanding of it Macro vs. Micro VIST framework Darwin/Mayr 2. Tools-language Open vs. Close ended questions How vs. why questions Best way of asking to reveal causal framework -explain causal framework: Essentialism (Gelman), Teleology (Kelman), Bloom, and Theory of Mind Ultimate Cause (natural) Why questions Proximate cause How questions 3.

Children's and adults understanding of biology / evolution /metamorphosis Evans Species-proximity to humans Mayr 4. Natural kinds vs. artifacts 5. Creationist-God... wanted, created, gave, made Naturalistic-need, adaptations, evolve, growth Intelligent design- intention, purposeful B) Rationale for this study 1. Give close-ended questions to younger children so they can understand the broad questions and because they may not be able to elaborate or communicate well enough.

Hood/Bloom: When children start answering causal questions of parents and when they start asking questions of their own. C) Hypothesis (still being established... have to wait until finished coding Kristin's data to predict the results of mine) Method subjects: 20-25 Age: 5 and 6 years Gender: 1/2 male and 1/2 female open-ended questions -divided into how and why - questions taken from coding results of previous study done by Kris itn - analyzed and took the most typical explanations Present the most frequent of those close-ended questions presented to older age group with 1 explanation per pattern: 4 reasoning patterns: (Will be inserted in paper with actual questions once the data has all been coded and analyzed from Kristin's study) Questions altered to fit all items Use item used with older kids to see if they are giving the answers the older kids did. Procedure 4 parts of the procedure will be given sequentially: 1. Warm-up 9 items (pictures) looking at interacting Ask child if the card is an animal or a human to see if they understand 2. Card practice agree / disagree face cards 3.

Open-ended questions 'how / why do you think... .' between subjects footnote Kristin's study 4. Close-ended questions 3 humans, 3 butterflies, 3 frogs, 3 mammals, 3 artifacts order randomly determined without replacement once item is chosen: They will be told that we asked other kids the question and give them the response that was most frequently given by the children to see if the younger kids agree or disagree 4 explanations randomly ordered 5. Kids given certificate and escorted back to car Parents may be given a survey to fill out as well to see if their responses affect their children. Also to see if they can accurately determine how their child will respond. (this remains to be decided).