Respiratory system-gets oxygen to cells of your body and getting rid of carbon dioxide and breathing; involves the formation of ATP within cells; made up of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, and lung Path of air-taking in air through nose or mouth; flows into pharynx; passes the epiglottis; moves through larynx; goes down windpipe trachea; bronchi; lead into lungs Trachea-tube like passageway that leads to two bronchi tubes; windpipe Epiglottis-piece of skin covers entrance to trachea when u swallow food Ciliated cells-in nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; lined with ciliated cells that secrete mucus; cilia beats upward where foreign material can be swallowed or expelled by coughing or sneezing Alveoli- (like balloons) sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and blood; at the ends of bronchioles; surrounded by networks of tinny blood vessels; blood in these vessel come from cells of body and contain wastes from cellular respiration; walls only one cell thick; blood that goes to alveoli from body's cells is high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen; carbon dioxide from the body diffuses from the blood into air spaces in the alveoli; External respiration-involves exchange of oxygen or carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and the blood that circulates through the walls of the alveoli; earth 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1%carbon dioxide water vapor and other gases Cellular respiration-cells use oxygen to break down glucose and release ATP energy; carbon dioxide and water are waste products of this process; water stays in cell or diffuses into the blood; the carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood which carries it back to the lungs; Exhalation / inhalation -exhale carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen diffuses from the air in the alveoli in tot he blood making blood rich in oxygen; inhale muscles in ribs contract and ribs rise and diaphragm->... and air rushes into your lungs because the pressure outside is greater than inside; exhale muscles wit ribs relax ribs drop down in chest and diaphragm->... this forces out air from alveoli Diaphragm-muscle under lungs; enable breathe in and out; contracts and becomes flattened and moves lower in the chest cavity when inhaling; when exhaling relaxes returning to rest position; Control of respiration-involuntary controlled by chemistry of blood as it interacts with medulla oblong ata which helps maintain homeostasis. Medulla oblong ata-control of respiration; maintain homeostasis; responded to higher levels of carbon dioxide in blood by c sending nerve signals to rib muscles and diaphragm and cause muscles to contract and u inhale Excretion-metabolic wastes are eliminated by the body Reabsorption-process by which water in the body are returned to the blood return glucose salt 99% of water occurs in renal tubule Filtration-urea and other wastes from the blood in the kidneys occurs in renal corpuscle Secretion-removal of certain substances such as drugs h+ from the blood occurs in serial tubule by active transport Urinary system-made up of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; Kidneys-filter the blood and remove wastes from it; control level of sodium ions which helps control osmotic pressure of blood; also regulate pH of blood by filtering hydrogen ions and letting bicarbonate to be reabsorbed into look Diabetes-excess levels of glucose in the blood Ureter-tube connecting kidney to urinary bladder Urinary bladder-smooth muscle bag that stores a solution of wastes Nephron-unit of the kidney; 1 mil; filtering unit; blood entering a nephron has wants from body cells and when it enters its under high pressure and flows into glomerulus; because of pressure water glucose vitamins amino acids protein waste products salts and ions from the blood pass out of the capillaries into the Bowman's capsule Bowman's capsule-U shaped tubule where water ions and glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed into the blood stream Glomerulus-bed of capillaries Urine-liquid that remains in tubules made of water, waste molecules, excess ions; 2 L a day Urethra-urine passes out the body through this tube Waste products-nitrogenous wastes from breakdown of proteins; include ammonia and urea.