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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Impact Of Television Violence In Relation To Juvenile Delinquency - 1102 words
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.. l children with a programming of either antisocial, prosocial, orneutral television programs during a four-week viewing period. The resultsindicated that children who were judged to be somewhat in the beginningaggressive became increasingly more aggressive as a result of viewing the Batmanand Superman cartoons. The children who had viewed the prosocial programming ofMister Roger's Neighborhood were less aggressive, more cooperative and morewilling to share with other children. (Stein, Friedrich, 1972:202-317)CAUSE AND EFFECTS ON TYPES OF CHILDRENWe get a clearer picture about the effects of TV violence when we knowmore about the way children watch televised violence.
For example, Ekman and hisassociates (Ekman et al., 1972) found that children whose facial expressions,while viewing televised violence, depicted the positive emotions of happiness,pleasure, interest or involvement were more likely to hurt another child thanwere those children whose facial expressions indicated disinterest ordispleasure.Although there is much discussion about the amount of research evidenceconcerning the impact of television violence, most researchers would agree withthe conclusion in the report during 1982 by the National Institute of MentalHealth, which suggests that there is a conclusion among members of the researchcommunity that 'violence on television does lead to aggressive behavior bychildren and teenagers who watch the programs'.(NIMH, 1982) This conclusion isbased on laboratory experiments and on field studies. Not all children becomeaggressive, of course, but the correlations between violence and aggression arepositive.Television violence is strongly correlated with aggressive behavior asany other behavioral variable that has been measured. The research question hasmoved from asking whether or not there is an effect, to seeking explanations forthe effect.While the effects of television violence are not simply straightforward,analyses and reviews of research suggest that there are clear reasons forconcern and caution in relation to the impact of televised violence. To be sure,there are many factors that influence the relationship between viewing violenceand aggressive behavior and there has been much debate about these influences.It is clear that there is a considerable amount of violence on television andthat this violence on TV may cause changes in attitudes, values, or behavior onchildren and older viewers.Although there are many different views on the impact of TV violence,one very strong summary is provided by Eron during his 1992 Congressionaltestimony: 'There can no longer be any doubt that heavy exposure to televisedviolence is one of the causes of aggressive behavior, crime and violence insociety. The evidence comes from both the laboratory and real-life studies.'(Eron, 1992) Television violence affects children of all ages, of both genders,at all socio-economic levels and all levels of intelligence
The effect is notonly limited to children who are already aggressive and is not restricted tothis country. The facts remain that we get the same findings of a relationshipbetween television violence and aggression in children study after study, inevery country, and every economic level. The effect of television violence onaggression, even though it is not very large, exists. This effect has beendemonstrated outside the laboratory in real-life among many different children.Children ha ve come to justify their own behavior through the scenes of violenceand negativity involved in television programming.The recent report by the American Psychological Association Task Forceon Television and Society (Huston, et al., 1992) adds: '..the behavior patternsestablished in childhood and adolescence are the foundation for lifelongpatterns manifested in adulthood' (Huston,et,al., 1992:57).CONCLUSIONThe most recent summary released in August, 1993 of the AmericanPsychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth: Violence and Youth,Psychology's Response, confirms the findings noted above and reaffirms the needto consider ways to reduce the level of violence in all media. (APA, 1993:77-78). In conclusion we should remember that although the media certainly has alot to answer for, it is important to remember that not everything that comesthrough the TV is bad. Rather, it is overuse and generally a careless attitudeby adults that so often leads to regrettable results.REFERENCESAmerican Psychological Association.
(1993) 'Violence & Youth: Psychology'sResponse. Volume I: Summary Report of the American Psychological AssociationCommission on Violence and Youth.' Washington. D.C.: American PsychologicalAssociationAmerican Psychological Association. (1985) 'Violence on television.'Washington, DC: APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility for Psychology.Andreasen (1990). 'Evolution in the family's use of television: Normative datafrom industry and academe.' In J.
Bryant (Ed.), Television and the Americanfamily (pp. 3-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Atkin, C.K. (1983). 'Effects of realistic TV violence vs. fictional violence onaggression.' Journalism Quarterly, 60, 615-621.Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S.H. (1963).
'Imitation of film-mediatedaggressive models.' Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66 (1), 3-11.Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S.H. (1961) 'Transmission of aggression throughimitation of aggressive models.' Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63(3), 575-582.Berkowitz, L. (1962) 'Aggression: A social psychological analysis.' New York:McGraw-Hill.Berkowitz, L., Corwin, R. & Heironimus, M. (1963) 'Film violence and subsequentaggressive tendencies.' Public Opinion Quarterly, 27, 217-229.Berkowitz, L., & Rawlings, E.
(1963) 'Effects of film violence on inhibitionsagainst subsequent aggression.' Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(5), 405-412.Ekman, P., Liebert, R.M., Friesen, W., Harrison, R., Zlatchin, C., Malmstrom,E.V., & Baron, R.A. (1972) 'Facial expressions of emotion as predictors ofsubsequent aggression.' In G.A. Comstock, E.A. Rubinstein, & J.P. Murray (eds.)'Television and Social Behavior, vol. 5, Television's Effects: FurtherExplorations.' Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.Eron, L.
(1992) 'The impact of televised violence.' Testimony on behalf of theAmerican Psychological Association before the Senate Committee on GovernmentalAffairs, June 18, 1992.Gerbner, G. & Signorielli, N. (1990) 'Violence profile, 1967 through 1988-89:Enduring patterns.' Manuscript, University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg Schoolof Communications.Hapkiewitz, W.G. & Roden, A.H. (1971) 'The effect of aggressive cartoons onchildren's interpersonal play.' Child Development, 42, 1583-1585.Huston, A.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N.D., Katz, P.A., Murray,J.P., Rubinstein, E.A., Wilcox, B., & Zuckerman, D. (1992) 'Big world, smallscreen: The role of television in American society.' Lincoln, NE: University ofNebraska Press.Russell Sage Foundation.
Lichter, R.S. & Amundson, D. (1992) 'A day oftelevision violence.' Washington, DC: Center for Media and Public Affairs.National Institute of Mental Health (1982) 'Television and behavior: Ten yearsof scientific progress and implications for the eighties' (vol. 1), Summaryreport. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.Phillips, D.P. (1983) 'The impact of mass media violence on U.S. homicides.'American Sociological Review, 48, 560-568.Robinson, J.P.
& Bachman, J.G. (1972) 'Television viewing habits andaggression.' In G.A. Comstock & E.A. Rubinstein (eds) 'Television and SocialBehavior', vol. 3, 'Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness.' Washington, DC:United States Government Printing Office.Stein, A.H. & Friedrich, L.K.
(1972) 'Television content and young children'sbehavior.' In J.P. Murray, E.A. Rubinstein & G.A. Comstock (Eds.) 'Televisionand social behavior' (vol. 2), 'Television and social learning' (pp. 202-317).Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
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