Cancer Cancer I. Introduction A. History B. What Is Cancer C. Types Of Cancer II. How Cancer is Diagnosed III.

Seven warning Signs IV. Possible Causes Of Cancer A. Environment B. Viruses C. Haereditatis D. The Sun E.

The Air V. Treatments A. Surgery B. Radiation C.

Chemotherapy VI. Prevention A. Primary B. Secondary Cancer History Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States Heart disease is the first.

Each year more than a million Americans get medical care for cancer and over 330, 000 die from the disease. Cancer is one of mans dreaded diseases. It attacks people of all ages. Cancer kills more children than any other disease. About 4, 000 children under 15 years old die of cancer each year.

half of the deaths are from leukemia. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood forming tissues. Cancer has been observed in many forms of animal and plant life, as well as in man. More than 200 kinds of cancer affect human beings and each kind differs from the others. All cancer start in living cells. Researchers are still looking for answers to many questions about cancer.

For instance, scientists do not know what exactly causes cancer. Once researchers find the cause of cancer then they will be able to find ways to cure and prevent the disease. They also want to develop better ways to detect and treat s all forms of cancer. In the United States, the National Cancer Institue has played a major role in Cancer research since it was established in 1937.

The American Cancer Society also support research programs. The National Cancer Act of 1971 expanded government efforts in cancer research. Cancer research and control programs have made definite progress In 1900, cancer was almost always fatal. I the 1930 s fewer than one of every five patients were saved. Today, doctors successfully treat one of every three people who get cancer. Some experts believe that if all present knowledge were used promptly in every case of cancer at least half of all cancer patients could be saved.

The American Cancer Society was founded in 1913. The first United States cancer hospital was founded in 1884, in New York City. Which later became the Memorial Hospital in 1889. The very first cancer hospital was founded in Reims, France in the 1700 s.

What is Cancer Cancer is a general term for more than 250 diseases that are characterized by uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells can spread through the blood and the clear fui ld that bathes body cells called lymph to start new cancers in other parts of the body. Normal cells can convert to abnormal cancer cells. Cancer cells reproduce more rapidly than normal cells and ignore normal regulations of when, how, and where to grow.

Normal cells are more concerned with function than growth. Cancer cells are more concerned with growth than function. Cancer cells seem to be able to grow anywhere in the body. Different kinds of cancer grow at different rates and respond to different kinds of treatments. But all produce use less tissue and keep normal cells from getting nourishment.

Cancer cells that are not treated displace normal cells and eventually destroy them. Types of Cancer There are about 250 different types of cancers that exist. They are classified into two ways, one is the part of the body where the cancer cells first develop and the second the type of body tissue where the cancer begins. Cancer that starts in the tissue that forms the skin and linings of the body organs is called carcinoma. Cancers of the skin, breast, and body systems are carcinomas and are the most common cancer that begins in the tissue that forms the bodys supporting structures is sarcoma. Some examples are bones, muscles and catalogue.

Other types of cancer are skin, lung, colo-real which is colon cancer, breast, uterine-Cervix, ovary, vaginal, testicular, mouth and throat, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver and bone. There are many more. The most common for young people are osteo genic sarcoma which is known as bone cancer, E wings sarcoma another bone cancer, lymphomas, and rhabdomyosarcoma. How Cancer Is Diagnosed Cancer has often been called the silent killer. It gives no warning of its presence in the early stages. Cancer can be diagnosed during a physical examination.

In woman a doctor can check for cancer of the cervix and the uterine by a pap smear test. The doctor can also use X-ray technology to detect cancer. A dropsy is another method of accurately diagnosing cancer. Doctors urge that every person have at least one complete physical each year. Seven Warning Signs There are seven warning signs that a person should be aware of: Unusual bleeding or discharge A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere A sore that does not heal.

Change in bowel or bladder habits. Hoarseness or a continuing cough. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing. Change in a wart or mole.

Any of these symptoms one should consult a doctor promptly. The early detection of cancer the better. Possible Causes Of Cancer No one know exactly what causes cancer. Most scientists believe that there is no single cause and that many factors maybe involved.

A persons work or place where he or she lives may contribute to the disease. People who are frequently in contact with certain kids of chemicals may develop the disease. Manufacturers whose products require the use of carcinogens which are cancer-producing substances, take steps to safe guard workers against exposure to them. Carcinogens consist of human made and natural chemicals found in small quantities in the air, water, food, and the work place. It has been difficult proving that viruses are the cause of cancer. So viruses dont play a big role in causing cancer, yet.

Some doctors believe that a tendency to develop certain types of cancer may be inherited. The skin is greatly effected the sun. The ultraviolet radiation from the sun harms the skin because of the direct exopsure to sunlight. Lung cancer has shown the greatest increase of any form of cancer in the past 35 years. We inhale about 20 breaths per minute. The air we breathe is directly related to our quality of health.

Cigarette smoking and air pollution are two main factors that are increasing lung cancer. Indus trail wastes, automobile exhausts, and household sources cause air pollutions. Treatments Of Cancer Cancer treatment has improved tremendously in the past 50 years. In the 1930 s the disease was stopped in only about 20% of cancer patients. Now that percentage is about 41%. Surgery has been used to treat breast and intestinal cancer.

This method has been successful. Surgery has cured more cancers than radiation and chemotherapy. Radiation is successfull in stopping some forms of cancer such as cervical cancer. Cobalt units are used in the treatment of radiation. It penetrates a tumor without damaging the skin. These two methods, radiation and surgery are used when the cancer is located in a local spot that has not spread through the body.

Chemotherapy is used to destroy malignant cells without excessive destruction of the normal cells. Some risks of chemotherapy are severe nausea, vomiting, and the loss of hair on head. Preventions There are some possible preventions in getting cancer. Primary and Secondary prevention are some possibilities. Primary prevention is the absence of disease. It is the steps taken to prevent a disease from ever developing.

Primary prevention is health and wellness. Secondary prevention is early detection or screening. Such as getting a pap smear test for detection of early cervical cancer. Preventions begin with the individual and includes healthy eating habits, moderate alcohol consumption regular physical activity, avoidance of cigarette smoking, regular medical checkups and minimizing exposure to pollutants in the air, water, and food. It is never too late to begin.

Cancer can be avoided. BIBLIOGRAPHY Understanding Cancer, Mark Renneker M. D. , 1988 Bull Publishing Company Cancer and Nutrition, Elizabeth Some, MA, RD, 1990 Health Media of America, Inc.

Glencoe Health, Mary Bronson Merki, Ph. D. , Don Merki, Ph. D. Glencoe Publishing Company The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol 3, Enterprises Education Corporation, 1986.