No 1 What is a Manager A number of different terms are used for "manager", including "director", "administrator" and "president." The term "manager" is used more frequently in profit-making organizations, while the others are used more widely in government and non - profit organizations such as universities, hospitals and social work agencies. What, then, is a manager When used collectively the term "management" refers to those people who are responsible for making and earring out decisions within the system. An individual manager is a person who directly supervises people in an organization. Some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of organizations; they include hard work on a variety of activities, preference for active tasks, direct personal relationships. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions.
The reason for making a decision in that a problem exists. In decision making there is always some uncertainty and risk. Managing is a hard job. There is a lot to be and relatively little time to do it. Big companies have many managers heading departments. They are all responsible to the managing director.
Among various departmental managers (directors) the following can be mentioned: - sales manager - personnel manager chief manager district manager sales and marketing manager industrial engineering manager etc. - "", "", ""."", . , , "", -, , ... , : - - -... No 2. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT In the past, financial management was not a major concern for a business.
A company used to establish relations with a local bank. The bank handled the financing and the company took care of producing and selling. Today only a few firms operate in this way. Usually businesses have their own financial managers who work with the banks. They negotiate terms of financial transactions, compare rates among competing financial institutions.
Financial management begins with the creation of a financial plan. The plan includes timing and amount of funds and the inflow and outflow of money. The financial manager develops and controls the financial plan. He also forecasts the economic conditions, the company's revenues, expenses and profits.
The financial manager's job starts and ends with the company's objectives. He reviews them and determines the funding they require. The financial manager compares the expenses involved to the expected revenues. It helps him to predict cash flow.
The available cash consists of beginning cash plus customer payments and funds from financing. The financial manager plans a strategy to make the ending cash positive. If cash outflow exceeds cash inflow the company will run out of cash. The solution is to reduce outflows.
The financial manager can trim expenses or ask the customers to pay faster. The financial manager also chooses financing techniques. One of them is short-term financing. Another is long term financing. At the end of the fiscal year the financial manager reviews the company's financial status and plans the next year's financial strategy. , ...
, . , ... , , . , ... , . -, -STARTING-UP FINANCING The young businessman must find sources of money that will last until revenue begins to exceed cash outflows.
He must be creative in finding startup funding. New small businesses can start with the businessman's own assets. On top of that, start-up financing may come from frauds and relatives. The larger businesses can obtain funds from venture capital investors. One of the personal assets the businessman can use to raise funds for the business is his home. The value of the home that the own has paid for is called the owner's equity in the home.
By pledging this equity, the homeowner can obtain a second mortgage or a home equity loan. A businessman can find another source of start-up financing by a life insurance policy. Many policies build up cash surrender value- the money that the policy holder can borrow at a low interest rate. Those who need more funds can obtain a variable rate installment loan. It is a personal loan with an interest rate tied to the prime rate or some other index.
When the index changes the rate changes in the same direction. Some good sources of start-up funds are family members and friends. Many people can afford to lend at a low interest rate. The lender can share ownership of the business or can become a partner or shareholder in a corporation. In some cases new companies can obtain cash from venture capital firms.
These financial intermediaries specialize in funding ventures with good promise and invest in businesses which generate high profits within five years. Initially venture capital firms invested in high-tech industries, but now other branches enjoy this kind of financial especially those working in the health-care field. The venture capital firms provide seed money to start a new company, funds to help the venture grow and gain the market and Monet to buy out a business... , , . , , -. , , .
-, . , , . -, , , TEXT TWO: GETTING A JOB In Britain there is a special service for school leavers, The Careers Advisory Service, which helps young people who are looking for their first jobs. Career Officers give practical advice on interview techniques, application forms, letters, pay, National Insurance and Trade Unions. This is an extract from a leaflet which is given to young people by Dorset Careers Service. THE INTERVIEW You " ve got an interview for a job - good! So now for the hard work.
To do well at an interview you need to put in some thought first. The employer wants to know if you are the person he wants, so you " ll be asked about yourself. Think about it now: What do I do well What are my good points Why would I like this job Spare-time interests Hobbies Marital status What is family like What do I like doing and why What do I not like doing and why School activities School subjects Previous work (Previous experience) Saturday job You will want to ask questions too. The job itself Training Prospects Further education Conditions Can I see where I would be working Hours Write your questions down and take them with you. When applying by letter: Remember that first impressions are important, Write clearly and neatly on good notepaper, unlined if possible. Check for spelling mistakes.
Use a dictionary if you are not sure of a word. : leavers, , , . , -, , , . -, Dorset, , . , , . 1.
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