Bohr's Model There are three main parts of an atom the electrons, protons and the neutrons. Each part has charge. It is rather positive, negative, or neutral. An electron always has a negative charge. Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero.
If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. You can not pin point were the electrons are but the area that it can be in is called a shell. Periodic Table On the periodic table the horizontal rows are called periods, and the Vertical columns are called groups. Elements that are in the same row have something in common.
Elements in the same period have the same number of atomic shells. Every element in the top row has one shell for its electrons. The second row has two shells for their electrons. Now, the most shells for one element is seven. Less specific groups are called families.
Families are grouped by their chemical properties and how the elements react with the outside world. The columns in the periodic table are mostly used to make families. A family of elements can be found in many different ways. An isotope is an atom that is missing or that has an extra neutron. Ionic Bonds Ions are atoms with an extra electron or a missing electron.
But a normal atom would be neutral because it has the same number of electrons as the atomic number. If you are an atom and you are missing one electron, it does not mean that you are another atom, but you are not a complete atom either. You are something new, an ion. The goal of an atom is to be happy. If you have filled shells you are called stable. When you give up the extra electron you are attractive and other atoms want to bond with you.
The two main types of bonding are covent and. Ionic bonds are really groups of charged ions held together by electric forces. Covailent Bonds Covailent compounds happen when the electrons are shared by the atoms. Compounds cannot be broken down by physical forces. Chemical forces are forces are forces caused by other compounds that act on other substances. Compounds are made out of combinations of bonds.
Most compounds are combinations of ionic and covalent bonds. Organic Compounds An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds. Water is a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the time they are fixed with some sort of physical property, not a man made element. This is why brass, and aluminium are considered mixes and not compounds..