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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Puerto Rican Art - 1808 words
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.. y Bread), represents a jibaro farmer) carrying plantains. He is an old barefooted man. He is poor but proud, serious, dignified, clean and very Puerto Rican. He represents Puerto Rico at the beginning of the century.
There are other works by Prade, El Ni~no Campesino, Ensenada, La Poza, and many others. He died in 1907. Miguel Pou was born in Ponce in 1880. He studied painting and drawing intensively and also taught art. He founded his private art school in 1910 in Ponce which he ran for forty years
He was very much admired for his artistic works in Puerto Rico. He painted Puerto Rican landscapes and j'baro-types. Pou did not have a political statement to make. He wanted to capture the ideal of what a j'baro or j'bara was. He painted the beauty both physical and spiritual that the people and the land had. Pou died in 1968.
Among his pupils are: Epifanio Irizarry, Jos'e Alicea, and Jos'e Manuel Cintr'on Pou. Pou's works have been exhibited in many Puerto Rican towns, in North America, and in Madrid and Barcalona. Outstanding paintings by Pou are: Los Coches de Ponce, La Promesa, La Calle Loiza, La Catedral de Ponce. There will be a reproduction of Los Coches de Ponce at the Institute. Oscar Col'on Delgado was born in Hatillo in 1889.
He was a self-taught artist who had a wonderful sense of composition. He used his colors luminously with clear lines. His paintings range from portraits to still life, done in a Realist style but not photographic. Among his works is The Empty Basket in which a young boy holds an empty basket. There is a look of sadness and concern, as if in a moment of indecision.
The face is that of a child who is unsure of his immediate future. Juan De'Prey, partly of Haitian descent, was born in San Juan in 1904. He lived for some time in New York. He is also a self-taught artist but is not Primitive in style. He worked freely in different kinds of media.
He never took an art lesson or went to school. His drawings of children are captivating. He is not well known in Puerto Rico, but he is one artist Puerto Rico should be very proud of. Two of his works are on exhibit at the Museo del Barrio: Siesta on a Wheatfield and Lady and Child. De'Prey died of a heart attack at his home on November 30, 1962.
Puerto Rico has produced a wide variety of artists and styles. Women have actively participated in the arts. The list of artists is extensive and only a few of the most prominent will discussed. In the fifties, a growth in cultural identity was felt among many of the island's artists. A new political program was in effect with Mu~noz Mar'n's administration. The arts received more recognition than ever before. Air travel between the island and the mainland became more accessible and many artists migrated back and forth, expanding their knowledge.
They studied in the United States and Europe. The Institute of Puerto Rican Culture was established, and here the message made by many artists was of a nationalistic tendency. In the fifties, the artists expressed their loyalty to the Puerto Rican people and the island, and how he himself felt in relation to his country and his world. Outstanding artist of the fifties are: Loronzo Homar, Rafael Tufi~no, Auguato Mar'n, Epifanio Irizarry, Osiris Delgado, Jos'e R. Alicea, and Luis G. Cajigas.
This list is very much incomplete and needs further study. All these artists vary in their theme, techniques, and personal traits. Many are still painting and producing excellent pieces today. Rafael Tufi~no was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1922. He went to live to the island when he was five.
Tuti~no is dramatic in his paintings but he is outstanding in his graphics. His posters have become classics. His style is called poetical Realism. His themes are from the Puerto Rican heritage. Tufi~no has exhibited in Mexico, United States, and Europe.
Among his paintings are: Baile de Bomba, Goyita, Bodeg'on. and Mujer Encinta. Osiris Delgado was born in Humacao in 1920. He studied art in Puerto Rico, Italy, France, Spain and the United States. He has a Doctorate in Philosophy and Literature from the University of Madrid. He is a professor at the University of Puerto Rico.
He has written several books related to art. He excels in paintings of young people. Some of his paintings are: La Suerte de la Cuerda, Ta'na, Fresas, La Hija del Pintor. Jos'e R. Alicea is a native of Ponce. He was born in 1928.
He studied with Miguel Pou, and sculpture with the Spanish artist Compostela, and the graphic arts with Lorenzo Homar. He has exhibited extensively in Europe, the United States, and in Puerto Rico. Alicea follows the costumbrista tradition. He excels in his graphics because of his particular style. He has taken the same topic as Oller, The wake of a Child, but has given it a completely different treatment. El Cuatrista, El Santero, El Boxeador, Baquin'e I, El Rosario are some of graphics done by Alicea.
Luis G. Cajigas was born in Quebradillas in 1934. He studied graphic arts with Lorenzo Homar, Rafael Tufi~no, and Carlos Raquel Rivera. His style is essentially Regionalistic. He works freely and skillfully with color.
A series done on La Perla reflect this skill. There are many other artists in this group who are still working actively and possibly in completely different styles that they had or were experimenting with in the fifties. Outstanding painters from the sixties are Francisco Rod'on, Tom'as Batista, Myrna Ba'ez, Mar'a Rodr'guez Se~neriz, Natividad Gutierrez, Nicholasa Mohr, Suzi L'opez del Campo, and Eduardo M. Ort'z. Their styles varied from Regionalist to Realist, to Abstract.
Francisco Rod'on was born in San Sebast'an in 1934. He started to paint when he was sixteen years old. He traveled to Mexico and Guatemala, and studied in Madrid and Paris. Upon returning to Puerto Rico he was awarded a scholarship in Mexico. He has exhibited his paintings in the best museums and art galleries in Puerto Rico.
He won a prize in Medellin, Colombia for his Triptico a Rub'en Dario. His style has been consistent and he is considered one of Puerto Rico's foremost painters today. Tom'as Batista was born in Luquillo in 1935. The Institute of Puerto Rican Culture awarded him with a scholarship to study sculpture with Compostela and later to study in Mexico. Batista's sculptures have been exhibited in the United States, Mexico, Spain, and Puerto Rico.
Among his outstanding sculptures are: El Cacique Jayuya, Indios de Boriquen, and Caracol. In 1966 he came the Director of the Institute's Workshop and of the School of Plastic Arts. The Abstract painting movement which started in the sixties have as its exponents Luis Hern'andes Cruz, Domingo L'opez, Carlos Irizarry, Jaime Romano, and Rafael Col'on Morales. In the seventies, as in the sixties, artists developed more personal styles and worked in abstractions. In other words, the artists were shifting away from the Realism and Costumbrism into non-representative art. The Folk ArtsThe cultural inheritance from the Taino Indians that were on the island when Columbus discovered and conquered, is reflected in the language, food, folk medicine, beliefs, and customs.
The weaving of hammocks and in the confection of certain types of baskets the techniques used by the Indians are used today. The Corozo's black and hard seeds were used by the Indians to make adornments and for spindles to weave cotton. The Spaniards, who intermixed biologically and culturally with the Indians, and then later with black Africans, are mainly responsible for the cultural manifestations of the Puerto Rican people and it is seen in their folk arts or crafts. Another important contribution of the heritage to Puerto Rico is the Christian religion and particularly, the cult to the saints. In Puerto Rico, these figures were carved in hard tropical woods. The practice goes back to the colonization period of the sixteenth century.
The original santos were sacred figures. They were simple, childlike but not childish, yet forceful. The santos were found in homes and were prayed to daily. The figures were often repainted every few years on their saint's day. The santos were copied from elaborate forms brought from Spain. Since those religious figures were very expensive, the Puerto Rican artists carved their own versions of the saints.
For the last few decades, the santos, have become collector's items. There are large private and public collections. They are in great demand because they represent a form of Primitive art and at the same time reflect the devotion and religious superstitions of the Puerto Rican people. The ex-votos or miracles also derived from the religious beliefs of the people. These were small, two-dimensional figures made of silver or gold.
The style is Primitive and similar to the santos. The metal was flattened and shaped into that part of the body or animal that needed healing. These were offered to a saint. This is not done anymore. The altar in la Capilla del Cristo de la Salud in San Juan was made by melting the ex-votos offered to Christ the Healer for those miracles of health conceded.
Another craft similar to the santos but not of religious content is the wood carvings of animals, especially of the fighting roosters (gallos). Cockfighting is the national sport of Puerto Rico. Musical instruments like the cuatro, a stringed instrument similar to a guitar but with ten strings, drums, and marimbolas (from African roots) are handmade by dexterous craftsmen. More Puerto Rican crafts. Masks made of coconuts are typical of Loiza Aldea, a town on the Northern Coast of the island, with the most African influence. The festivities to St. James (Santiago Ap'ostol) are famous on the island.
Castor Ayala is the maximum exponent of this craft. Other crafts from coconut shells are also made here. The African influence is heard in music and through handmade musical instruments. The influence of the Indian, Spanish, and African heritage's is also reflected to various degrees in the pottery and clay figures made today on the island. Puerto Rico's present day crafts are many and varied, and there are craft fairs celebrated on the island for everyone to enjoy.Resources:Magaly Rivera "Welcome to Puerto Rico!"http://welcome.topuertorico.org/index.shtmlI rvine R. MacManus, Jr.
"Ta'ino Treasures The Legacy of Dr. Ricardo E. Alegr'ia"http://ca80.lehman.cuny.edu/gallery/taino treasures/macmanus essay.htmBob Corbett "Pre-Columbian Hispaniola - Arawak/Taino Indians"http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/1 00.html"Puerto Rican Painters"http://www.angelfire.com/art2/puerto rican artists/Cecil Marie Cancel "!Bienvenidos a la p'agina de nuestro pintor, Jos'e Campeche!"http://members.tripod.com/~josecampeche/ Mari Carmen Ram'irez "Modern and Contemporary Puerto Rican Artists Francisco Oller"http://www.zenstudio.com/pr/artists/oller/ol ler.htm.
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