1. Thomas Hobbes - State of Nature- The state of nature is war. There are no morals in the state of nature, justice is non-existent. He claims that the supreme power determines justice, in a state of nature, there is no power. - Nature of Man- People are created equal, but its just a metaphysical fact, we are all equally in secure.
Man is naturally bad, we are out for ourselves at the expense of others in an anti-social way. - Natural Rights in Nature- Only one, the right to preserve ones self. - In Society- What ever the power decides - Type of Government Believed in- parliament / monarchy , impartial power controls all. Wrote all this in the leviathan. - Historical Influence- Hobbes wrote in England. Supported the King during the English Civil war.
2. John Locke - State of Nature- People get along and are social, it is a type of society in his opinion. There is a sense of justice in the state of nature. People know they ought to obey others rights. People are rational, they would not create a government that makes them worse off than in the TSN. - Nature of Man- People have same moral equity.
- Why is a Government Needed- Even though things in the state of nature are great a government is needed because 1. People may disagree over property. 2. There is no written law only natural law 3. Humans may not respect others natural rights though they know they ought to. - Natural Rights in Nature- Rights to life liberty and property.
Property is gained when labor is mixed into it. - In Society- Life, liberty and property - Type of Government believed in- A democratic system must be developed to protect natural rights. People will in turn support it. Leaders are chosen through a majority vote.
Every person has moral equity so every person counts as a vote. - Historical Influence- Wrote during Parliament revolt agains king in England. Basis for Dec. Of Ind. And American revolution. 3.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau - State of Nature- People get along in the state of nature, society corrupts them. One compares himself to others and jealousy and envy result. Products of society. - Nature of Man- We are all born good. We feel pity for fellow man.
We also have self love. One must have self-respect to have morals. In society self-love becomes conceit and pity is turned to joy. - Natural Rights in Nature- Brotherhood, Liberty and Equality - In Society- Brotherhood, liberty and equality - Type of Government Believed in- A direct democracy must be formed - Historical Influence- Wrote for the French Revolution which failed. Ideas were to general. - General Will- A perversion of "majority rules." What the majority votes is either what you voted for or u realize you were wrong and that you actually wanted what was voted upon.
Therefore having everyone vote the same.