Tojo Hideki lived from 1884-1948 and he was a Japanese political and military leader. The premier who ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he personified Japanese militarism. Tojo Eiko (his name before he became premier) was born in Tokyo on Dec. 30 1884. The son of an army general, he graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1905, and 10 years later completed with honors his studies at the army war college.
After World War I, he became an exponent of the theory of total war. As head of the mobilization section of the war ministry, he played an important role in drafting the first general mobilization plans of the imperial army. Committed to the principle that Japan's military strength must be rooted in a developed industrial economy, Tojo urged in the early 1930's the reorganization of the army and, at the same time, the combination of the resources of Manchuria with the economy of Japan. (en.
wikipedia. org / wiki /Tojo Hideki) His remarkable abilities as a staff officer led to quick promotion. After serving as chief of police affairs of the Kwantung army (the Japanese army in China), he became its chief of staff in 1937. He was appointed vice minister of war in May 1938 and director of military aviation in December. In July 1940, as minister of war, he drafted new mobilization plans that strained diplomatic relations with the United States... In October 1941 he became premier and took the portfolios of war, education, and commerce and industry.
Tojo was a virtual dictator from the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec 7, 1941, until his resignation from the government on July 19, 1944, as a result of the American victory at Saipan on July 9. Japan surrendered on Sept. 2, 1945, and nine days later Tojo attempted suicide by shooting himself in the chest, but he survived and was treated in the hospital. Condemned by the International Military Tribunal for crimes against humanity. He was found guilty of count 1 (waging wars of aggression, and war or wars in violation of international law), count 27 (waging unprovoked war against China), count 29 (waging aggressive war against the United States) count 31 (waging aggressive war against the British Commonwealth), count 32 (waging aggressive war against the Netherlands), count 33 (waging aggressive war against France (Indochina) ), and count 54 (ordering, authorizing, and permitting inhumane treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) and others). He was hanged in Tokyo on Dec.
23, 1948. He joined the Japanese Army and his military service included periods in Switzerland and Germany. Promoted to major general in 1933 be became head of the Kwantung Army's military police in September 1935. After becoming a lieutenant general he became chief of staff to the Kwantung Army (March 1937-May 1938). In May 1938 Fumimaro Kondoye appointed Tojo as his vice minister of war. However, after six months in this post he returned to the armed services and took command of the army's aviation.
Tojo held extreme right-wing views and was a supporter of Nazi Germany. He also feared the long-term plans of Joseph Stalin and in 1938 he advocated pre-emotive air strikes on both China and the Soviet Union. (web) In July 1941 Tojo was appointed by Fumimaro Kondoye as minister of war. He advocated an aggressive foreign policy and strongly opposed plans by Shigenori to remove Japanese troops from China and Korea. Tojo became prime minister on 16 th October 1941. He initially backed the foreign office's efforts to reach agreement with the United States.
However, when convinced that a negotiated deal was possible, ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 th December, 1941. As well as prime minister Tojo also held the posts of minister of war, home minister and foreign minister. From February 1944 he was also Commander in Chief of the General Staff. (Hoyte) This is a letter to President Roosevelt on how they felt about the war and Hideki's actions. "It has now been eleven days since the mandate of Prime Minister Tojo: either meet his demands for hegemony in Asia or prepare for war. Keep in mind the Japanese empire's complete disregard for Secretary of State Hull's note, calling for a peaceful agreement to leave Indochina and China within two years and to guarantee China's sovereignty.
Prime Minister Tojo decided it was he who should have the upper hand in making the decisions. In light of this and several other facts, I think it should be clear that Japan is not interested in making peace - they are interested only in controlling all of Asia and the Pacific Islands, at whatever cost. In light of this and the recent threats of warfare, I feel it is Important to consider any and all possible courses of action that Japan may take. Seeing as it has been almost two weeks since warfare was promised, I feel this is rather urgent.
It is clear that Prime Minister Tojo is no longer interested in negotiations. He is only interested in bloodshed." (Letter to President Roosevelt) World War II resulted in more deaths, cost more money, damaged more property, effected more people, and globally had the most far-reaching effects of any war in history. The three main causes of the war were the problems left unsolved by World War I, the rise of dictators in Europe, and the desire of Italy, Germany, and Japan for territory. The policy of isolationism was broken in the United States when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, dragging America into the war.
The war was fought on two fronts, Europe and the Pacific. The allies, which included the United States, England, France, and Russia were successful in defeating the axis powers which included Italy, Germany, and Japan. World War II played a major role in United States' history. From an economic perspective, it brought the United States out of the depression of the 1930's. The government converted industries from civilian to war production to produce strategic war materials and instituted rationing and price cont s to support the war effort.
Socially, the war played a major part in changing the role of women in America. As men went off to fight, the women assumed many of the roles previously filled by men in the war plants. Politically, the war led to the United States' participation in the newly formed United Nations, organized to oversee international affairs. The major impact of the war, however, resulted from the United States' decision to utilize the atomic bomb. The two atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945 were the major factors contributing to Japan's surrender.
The bomb represented a huge scientific advance in modern warfare. It opened up the possibility for vast destruction of human life. The United States' decision to use the bomb precipitated a postwar race to produce nuclear weapons in many countries, especially the Soviet Union and eliminated the opportunity of reaching an international agreement to control production and testing of such weapons for many years. (Hoyte).