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Sample essay topic, essay writing: History Of Kosovo- Related To - 1138 words
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The Balance of Power Theory and It's Application to Kosovo Ideas are the corner-stones of International Relations and Diplomacy. These ideas are often titled theories, a term that grants the ideas a certain degree of credibility in application, though they remain theories; they cannot be proved., only applied intelligently in hopes of arriving at the correct conclusion. One theory concerning the Balance of Power (BOP) falls under the Neo-Realist analysis of conflict within the International system. This Essay will attempt to apply this theory, somewhat retroactively to the situation in Bosnia and more specifically, to that in Kosovo. Retroactively, because the essay will principally examine how these theories can be applied to the history of the Kosovo conflict, dating to the present.
Secondly, it will undertake to detail the current situation in that region in these same terms, providing an accurate description of the status quo. Finally, the Balance of Power Theory will be employed in a prospective manner, to offer a solution to the situation in terms of actually creating a balance of power within the country of Bosnia. Outline:I. Definitions of Terms for the Purpose of this Essay A. Neo Realism B. Balance of Power Theory (BOP) C. Power Transition (PT)II
Retroactive Application of Theory A. History of Kosovo Situation B. How BOP/PT Theory Explains Kosovo Conflict III. Immediate Application of Theory A. How Status Quo is Represented by BOP TheoryIV. Prospective Application of Theory A.
What Actual Balance of Power may lead to Peace in the RegionV. ConclusionI. A. Neo-Realism Neo-Realism is one of the schools of thought in International Relations theory. It is a sub-school of Realism, which originated in the aftermath of World War II. Realists tended to blame the Second World War on Liberals and their failure to deter the fascist powers that initiated that war. Some of their specific criticisms include these principles: 1.There is no such thing as individual rationality, as liberals believe.
In realism, individuals give in to group rationales, i.e. German participation and support of the holocaust. Of course, most of the population was horrified at what was happening, but as a nation of Germans, felt perhaps it was necessary for the survival of their state. 2. States do not truly have common interests. If this were true, there would be no need for supranational organizations, and supranationally binding treaties would also be unnecessary, as interests would be tacitly agreed on. Neo-Realism, as a result of the cold war, is marked by more a modern view of International Relations, i.e.
whereas Classicists would insist that a Balance of Power theory is what keeps the world from the brink of war, a Neo-Realist attributes this to a combination of BOP and the Mutual Assured Destruction theory. 1.B. Balance of Power Theory The BOP Theory states that having a balance of power establishes equilibrium. Anarchy generally equals insecurity, and insecurity and conflicts of interest are what produce constant competition between states. In order to ease competition states seek allies and military power, which leads to a balance of power.
This formulation is a consequence of twentieth century war and state history, and must be modified to be applied to different times periods. Medievally, this power structure would have included the church and the power of its doctrines. For the objectives of applying this theory on the future, it will be used in it's current form. 1.C. Power Transition Theory The PT theory states that whoever has the power (the ability of state A to influence state B) in an arena, is likely to be the dominant state.
Conversely, it hypothesizes that an equality of power leads to peace. This last observation tends not to have relevance in the Kosovo situation because of the historical imbalance of power in the region. II. A. History of the Kosovo Situation The Area of Kosovo had long been considered central to the identity of Serbs.
Between the 7th and 10th centuries, the Balkans Peninsula was settled by Slavs. The area began to flourish and expand, with Kosovo and neighboring area Metohia, becoming, culturally and administratively , the center of the Slavic rule near the fall of Constantinople in 1204. 13 years later, Serbian King Steven the First Crown conquered Kosovo, making it militarily, the center of Serbian rule, and the most important state in the Balkans. Soon after, in 1219, the Serbian Orthodox church became autocephalous, and moved its seat to Metohia, the sister region to Kosovo. Kosovo and Metohia were now the military and religious center of life in the Balkans, and not accidentally. The region is surround by mountain gorges and was comparatively safe from outside attack.
Under this protection, learned monks and spiritual dignitaries gathered, strongly influencing the religious shaping of the nation. The value of Serbian Orthodox art and architecture soon bypassed that of the Byzantine empire, with which the Serbian forces frequently warred. Politically, Serbian rulers, with their rich feudal holdings, ensured the survival of the church by granting it estates, which later from the Greek 'metoch' meaning 'estate of the church' took the name Metohia. By the 14th century, clashes with neighboring Turks, became common. The battle of St. Vitas day, on June 28 (15 by the Orthodox calender) 1389 ultimately resulted in a military stalemate, with some Serb rulers, frustrated with their losses, choosing to become vassals of the Turk king. This created internal strife among loyal Serbians, and those thought to be 'traitors' and until 1455 civil war and battles with Turks continued to narrow Serbian territory, finally, leading to a mass migration of Serbs to Hungary and transylvania, while their land came under the rule of Turkey.
For centuries later, the population on the now Turk-held areas continued to have a ethnic Serbian Majority, with other tribes, including Albanians. With other peoples came Catholicism, but Serb religious leaders had a sort of reformation of its own, if an effort to let their people resist Catholic influence. Records of Catholic Visitators counted populations of the area to be mainly Serbian, and an obstacle to will of that Church, which subsequently set Albanians (mainly Catholic even Islamic) in an incitement against Serbs. The Orthodox church added to it's reformation a new cult of saints an effort to hearten persecuted Serb peoples. In the 17th -18th Centuries, Serbs continued their exodus from the area of Kosovo-Metohia, and Albanians, with the help of Turks rapidly grew into a major ethnic group of the region.
Though even in 1912 Serbs accounted for almost half of the areas population, rampant Albanian anti-Serb sentiment and mistreatment (murder, theft, extortion, abuse, etc) caused a new migration of Serbs from Kosovo to what had become the new Serbia. After World War One, the Austrian-Hungarian hindrance of the Serbian effort to stabilize their governments in Serbia and Montenegro, and their support of the greater Albanian state; to include Ko ...
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