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Sample essay topic, essay writing: History Of Human Behavior - 1409 words
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.. ody; it concerns itself with technological manifestations such as the conquest of disease, the green revolution, energy flow in ecosystems and the cost-benefit analysis of gene splicing. Psychoanalysis on one hand does not correctly determine dysfunction, while sociobiology broadly generalizes a correlation between man and animal. There are also many other range of differences between the two theories. To utilize these faulty assumptions of human behavior would do nothing to contribute to a sufficient theory of human nature. Sigmund Freud claimed that psychoanalysis was the third blow to human self-esteem (Frey, 6th April). He discovered psychoanalysis while treating white, middle class women that suffered from hysteria. He found that the only effective technique in treating these women seemed to be hypnosis; hence he came to be thoroughly convinced of the power of the unconscious. In essence, through psychoanalysis, Freud asserts that man is not the rational being he perceives himself to be, but rather a being pushed around by irrationality, and memories.
The individual behaves as he does due to the concept between the id, ego and superego which makes up the mind. The problem according to Freud was that much of the thoughts in the unconscious mind are constantly repressed. (psych.nwu.edu). Whereas, On the Other Hand, From studying insects to larger animals, Edward o Wilson, found that biological principles which now appear to be working reasonably well for animals in general can be extended to human beings. ( Wilson, 8 )These principles display the true relativeness of the only members of a species that possess certain kinds of the physical traits adapt, survive and reproduce in the world. (Frey, 04/20).
According to sociobiology, all human social behaviour can be explained as the product of evolutionary processes acting through genes. Freud detailed the background of the occasion in which he first began to create psychoanalysis. Consequently, through analyzing the manifest content of is patients dreams, Freud sought ot look into the unconscious mind. He found that in nearly all cases the. Psychoanalysis finds the cause of individual behavior in the unconscious mind; sociobiology attributes genetics as the only factor of behavior (www.psych.nwu.edu) He recounted a Dr. Joseph Breuer, who was treating a hysteric girl.
Through his assistance, Freud came to conclusions that led to psychoanalytic psychology. Because of the study of the neurotics he traced back the symptoms absurprising regularity through millions of years of interaction between genes and environment (Wilson 17). It can be seen in such a way that When this wish, which is best achieved though sexual love because it is the most intense experience of an overwhelming sensation of pleasure furnished for our search for happiness. (Freud, 33). The fully functional human being of Carl Rogers or the healthy specimen of Abraham Maslow has no place in Freud's theory of psychoanalysis. In terms of range of convenience, the Psychoanalytic Perspective on human nature provides the greatest explanatory leverage.
Freud covers most factions of human nature. (runet.edu) For instance, Freud discusses everything from human impulses, to the interpretation of dreams. Freud drives more among the aggressive instinct instinct of the human behavior, (Freud, Civilization) Frankl tries to manipulate data searching by representing it in human nature concept as the humans search for the true meaning of life. (Frankl, Mans Search for Meaning) Whereas Wilson includes a lot about sociobiological features and perspectives of the human bodily and mental behavior as well as implications of such fraternities in human body (Wilson, On Human Nature). The Freuds theory as well as the sociobiological can be represented as the Macrothesis. Freuds psychoanlaytic psychology is not effective in explaining all human behavior simply because it focuses very specifically on those individuals that suffer from abnormal repressive tendencies.
To psychoanalyze a mentally healthy individual with such a technique is analogous to studying a microscopic specimen with dirty lens. Similarly if Wilson's sobiological psychology is looked at, then the basis is found in biology of the population and zoology in terms of comparison (Wilson, chapter8) He utilized these methods to explain the social behavior of the insects. Personality can best be described as personal qualities of an individual. No two people have the same personality, but yet all the different personalities in the world can be characterized into four main theories. Sigmund Freud has many theories on how people develop.
His most influential theory to the development of the human mind was his five-psychosexual stage in the various kinds of the insects. Neither man or society is bad just at times it seems like one of the two influences a little more of behavior. Man is both biological and social. The part that simulates biological is the part of Freud's theory where he states there is an ID, Superego and an Ego. Another thing is agreed with is Freud's theory of the Defense Mechanisms.
The mankind uses each one of them in everyday life. Another thing that is a great example of man being biological is that at sometimes man can have animal drives and desires. The man is also driven by the idea of free will which to. The mankind has free will but maybe takes it for granted. Thus, mankind should be much more grateful and appreciative for the environment that is created and for what they have become due to their environment.
Man's behavior just can not be either biological or social because, mankind also passes on behavior through genetic inheritance. Man has to be both according to my own theory. The clear perception of the human aggressive behavior as a structure, predictable pattern of the interaction between genes and environment is consistent with the evolutionary theory. (Frey, Lecture). The cultural traditions of warfare in primitive societies evolved independently of the ability of human beings to survive and reproduce.
(Wilson, On Human Nature) Thus, the ultimate theme of the psychologists reflects the symptoms of reaching the conciled utmost goals towards the human nature. Freud explains gender differences more whereas Wilson stresses on homosexuality and sociobiological aspect of the human nature on the human nature than what Freud gave. On the other hand, Frankl totally contributed towards concept of deep self in human beings search for the destination (meaning) in their lives. The psychoanalysis perspective could be very useful for the mind- body concept of the human nature as well as dealing with the cultural and social issues (basically the gender issues). The sociobiological concept circulates all the technological aspects by which the human genetic materials have developed the evolutionary concepts and the disciplinary stages of various constraints related to human nature.
Thus, from all given reason from the above paragraphs, it can be clearly determined that neither of the psychologists said completes in all the fields. There were even similarities but only up to a certain extent. Taking the Contrast of Freud and Wilson, it can be determined that Freud directed towards the gender issues especially the psychological concepts of the gender differences whereas Wilson in his sociobiological theory explains biological interpretation and simulates mind-body conception with his theories. However all the theories by both of them identified in its deep core the true meaning of human nature. One focusing gender issues whether other happiness or so. One going towards description of the human mind whereas other going towards the bodily interpretation and its consequence over human nature.
Neither claim to completely elucidate all facets of the human nature. But Both Freud and Wilson said a lot about the core of the personality, no matter in what instincts they explained it. It was their ultimate goal towards the concept of interpreting the human beings focusing towards the aspects and moralities of the core effecting the human nature. Their theories helped a lot for the human society in finding the relative core of the human nature. And these theories of Psychology is still much worth regarding the personality as well as the human instinct of true self, true nature as well as their behavior.
BIBILOGRAPHY:- 1. Freud Sigmund, Civilization and Its Discontents, Tr:- James Stretcher, New York, W.W. Norton & Company, 1985. 2. Wilson, Edward O., On Human Nature, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1998. 3. Frankl, Victor E., Mans Search For Meaning, New York, Washington Square Press, 1985.
4. Social Science, Primis, New York, Mc Graw Hill, 1998. 5. http://www.psych.nwu.edu 6. http://www.psychology.com 7. http://www.psychology.ucdavis.edu 8. http://www.psychology.net 9. http://baldwin.apa.org:88/best/index.html 10. http://www.apa.org 11. http://www.runet.edu/~lridener/courses/SOCBIO.HTML.
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