Childhood Cognitive Disorders Mental Retardation Learning Disorders Communication Disorders Mental Retardation REMINDER: Code MR on Axis II Diagnostic Criteria for MR impaired general intellectual functioning impaired adaptive functioning onset prior to age 18 Intellectual Functioning approximately malesCourseo life long (although adaptive functioning may improve) o shortened life span in profound MREtiologyo 2/3 know no Genetic so Prenatal o Perinatal o Acquired Medical Conditions Sociocultural Factors? Treatment family education behavioral therapy o pharmacological Learning Disorders Reading Disorder Mathematics Disorder Disorder of Written Expression Learning Disorder, NOS Diagnostic Criteria achievement below expected: o based on age and education ANDo based on IQ 2 SD discrepancy between IQ and achievement learning disorder is NOT diagnosed just because an academic score is low. The academic score must be lower than expected given the person's intelligence Associated Features of LDo low self-esteem o school drop outs o ADH Do conduct disturbanceEpidemiologyo 2-10%o > males Etiology subtle disturbance in brain structure or function, which is either inherited or acquired in-utero  neural disturbance results in difficulty integrating information from different brain regions Onset & Course typically diagnosed in 1 st-2 nd grade usually life-long (sometimes abilities "catch up", which is explained by a "maturational lag") Treatment Psychotherapy for self-esteem, conduct problems parental education & support Educational adaptation entitled to special services (elementary through university) SPECIFIC DIAGNOSES Reading Disorder (formerly "dyslexia") Description significantly low achievement in reading skill so Their reading is typically characterized by: o slow & inaccurate reading poor comprehension o problems distinguishing phoneme so sequencing problems Biological Indicators genetics o positive paternal history is a strong risk factor for Reading Disorder  anatomical o lack of (or reversed) cerebral asymmetry of the plan um temporal e functional o increased latency of visual ERPsMathematics Disorder u significantly impaired mathematical abilities due to a conceptual problem rule out other explanations for poor math (e. g. , , inattention) Disorder of Written Expression Significantly impaired written language abilities Their written language is characterized by: o poor grammar & punctuation o poor paragraph organization poor spelling (not sufficient for a diagnosis) Learning Disorder, NO So deficiency in spelling alone (if problem produces a significant disruption to life) o combination of achievement problems (but none that are -2 SD below IQ so as to be diagnosable).