The Industrial Heartland -- Megalopolis There are basically seven factors that must be met before an industry can start to take place in a particular area. Those seven factors are: raw materials, transportation, energy, markets, labour, capital, and government. The Industrial Heartland is almost like one big industry, connected in a vast megalopolis. I'll be taking a closer look at these factors and the way this area meets the locational factors. The Industrial Heartland is an area that includes: Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Connecticut, Wisconsin, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, Washington DC, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Delaware, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Raw Materials (ex.
iron ore, coal, limestone etc. ) is an unprocessed material used as the base for primary industry. The Industrial Heartland has many different mining sites throughout it. (ex-the nickel mine in Ontario, mines in Pittsburgh, Gary, Baltimore, Hamilton, Sault Ste. Marie... etc.
) Transportation is extremely important in this area. Most mines and mills are located by waterways to make transportation readily available for it's transport's. Coal, limestone, and many other kinds of mines use the Great Lakes to transport, which happens to be in the middle of the Industrial Heartland. They usually have tons of material to move so water transportation can carry lots of material, it's cheap, but it's also slow. Another important route in this region is the St. Lawrence Seaway, which was an significant factor in the decision of industries to locate in this region.
Other main waterways in this region are: Ohio River, Mississippi River, New York State Barge Canal System, New York Harbour, Philadelphia Harbour, and Baltimore Harbour. There is also Railway to consider for transportation. They can almost go anywhere in this region, but they are more expensive than Waterway transport, and not as adaptable as trucks. Truck hauling is considered the best for most of the transport. Though the cost of fuel has increased over the years, trucks are still the main carrier of cargo. Energy, is one of the most, if not the most important factor for industries.
Every industry needs power, energy. Some sources of energy are: Hydroelectricity, Thermal electric, natural gas, and coal. Hydroelectricity is a good choice for energy for home requirements, but for industry, they need tremendous amounts of energy. To meet the requirements of an industries power, the industry would have to locate near the hydroelectric plant, and there is just simply not enough hydroelectric sites.
Thermal electricity is a commonly used power source for industry. It's convenient for the industry. Markets refer to trade, selling of goods to consumers. The Industrial Heartland offers many places for markets, as it has a large population, therefore, demand. So, an industry close to the demand wouldn't have to transport that much. Usually if their is high request for an item, the manufacturer would set prices higher to grasp extra transportation costs.
Labour-The Industrial Heartland would be an ideal place to locate, as it has a very high population, thus having many people, and workers looking for jobs. Many people live, locate to the Industrial Heartland to find jobs. There is a widespread of jobs in the industrial heartland-many different occupations are found there. Capital is the cash flow, equipment, and buildings of / needed by a certain industry. Obviously, to set up an industry you need a capital. It's like the starting money of the business / industry.
Stocks are usually bought by consumers, so an industry can raise it's capital (stock-share in a company). Bond issues and bank loans are just some of the other ways industries start up. Government-Municipal, provincial, and federal government are concerned with the industry. Government encourages industry, for the growth of the region. The job of each part of the government is as follows: municipal-choose land for the industry (make sure it's suitable), provide sewers, roads, electrical lines, schools, health care, and police protection.
Provincial-sets rules / regulations, so on, for the industry to o bide by. Provide energy, employee-training, enforce labour laws, safety standards, & working conditions. Federal-provides carriage and facilities-finances the construction of highways, harbours and airports, and enforces tariff. The Industrial Heartland meets all it's locational factors, and provides many jobs for people in the region. I think transportation, markets, and population of this region has greatly contributed to the amount of industry within it.